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الموضوع: معجم المصطلحات القانونية باللغة الإنجليزية

  1. #21
    An Oasis Citizen
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    افتراضي

    Oathقسم على قول الحق.
    n. 1) a swearing to tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, which would subject the oath-taker to a prosecution for the crime of perjury if he/she knowingly lies in a statement either orally in a trial or deposition or in writing. Traditionally, the oath concludes "so help me God," but the approval of a supreme being is often omitted. Criminal perjury charges are rare, however, since the person stating the untruth will almost always claim error, mistake, loss of memory or opinion. At the beginning of any testimony by a witness, the clerk or court reporter administers an oath to the witness. 2) The "swearing in" of a person assuming a public office, sometimes called the "oath of office." 3) sworn commitment of allegiance, as to one's country.


    obiter dictaتعليقات مرسلة للقاضى أثناء النطق بالحكم,ولكنها لا تعتبر ضمن الحيثيات.
    : (oh-bitter dick-tah) n. remarks of a judge which are not necessary to reaching a decision, but are made as comments, illustrations or thoughts. Generally, obiter dicta is simply dicta.


    Object عندما يعترض طرف على إدعاء الطرف الآخر.
    1) v. to ask the court not to allow a particular question asked of a witness by the opposing lawyer on the basis that it is either legally not permitted, confusing in its wording or improper in its "form." An attorney may also object to an answer to the question on the basis that it is not "responsive" since a witness is limited to answering a question as asked and is not allowed to make unsolicited comments. The trial attorney must be alert and quick in order to object before the witness answers. This is called an "objection" and must be based on a specific list of legal restrictions on questions. 2) n. a particular thing. 3) n. an aim or purpose, as "the object of the contract..."


    Objectionإعتراض, إحتجاج رسمى أمام المحكمة.
    n. a lawyer's protest about the legal propriety of a question which has been asked of a witness by the opposing attorney, with the purpose of making the trial judge decide if the question can be asked. A proper objection must be based on one of the specific reasons for not allowing a question. These include: irrelevant, immaterial, incompetent (often stated together, which may mean the question is not about the issues in the trial or the witness is not qualified to answer), hearsay (the answer would be what someone told the witness rather than what he/she knew first-hand), leading (putting words in the mouth of one's own witness), calls for a conclusion (asking for opinion, not facts), compound question (two or more questions asked together), or lack of foundation (referring to a document lacking testimony as to authenticity or source). An objection must be made quickly and loudly to halt the witness before he/she answers. The judge will either "sustain" the objection (ruling out the question) or "overrule" it (allow the question). The judge may ask for an "offer of proof" in which the lawyer asking the question must explain to the court the reason the question is relevant, and what evidence his/her questions will bring out. Badly worded, confusing or compound questions are usually challenged by an objection to the form of the question, which is essentially a demand that the question be withdrawn and reworded. An attorney may "object" to a witness's answer as "non-responsive" to the question, but the proper request should be that the answer or a comment without a question be "stricken" from the record.


    Obligationإلتزام, أو تعهد.
    n. a legal duty to pay or do something.


    Obligeeالشخص المقدم له الإلتزام أو التعهد.
    (ah-bluh-jee) n. the person or entity to whom an obligation is owed, like the one to be paid on a promissory note.


    Obligorالشخص الذى يلتزم أو يتعهد.
    (ah-bluh-gore) n. the person or entity who owes an obligation to another, as one who must pay on a promissory note.


    Obsceneفاحش أو فاجر,
    adj., adv. a highly subjective reference to material or acts which display or describe sexual activity in a manner appealing only to "prurient interest," with no legitimate artistic, literary or scientific purpose. Pictures, writings, film or public acts which are found to be obscene are not protected by the free speech guarantee of the First Amendment. However, the courts have had difficulty making a clear non-subjective definition since "one person's obscenity is another person's art," or, as one Supreme Court Justice stated, "I can't define it, but I know it when I see it."


    obstruction of justiceإعاقة العدالة, التدخل المسيئ لسير القضية.
    n. an attempt to interfere with the administration of the courts, the judicial system or law enforcement officers, including threatening witnesses, improper conversations with jurors, hiding evidence or interfering with an arrest. Such activity is a crime.


    Occupancy السكن, أو الإقامة, وضع اليد بدون وجه حق على ممتلكات لا يعرف مالكها,
    n. 1) living in or using premises, as a tenant or owner. 2) taking possession of real property or a thing which has no known owner, with the intention of gaining ownership.


    Occupantالساكن, اوالمقيم, أو المحتل.
    n. 1) someone living in a residence or using premises, as a tenant or owner. 2) a person who takes possession of real property or a thing which has no known owner, intending to gain ownership.


    Occupationمهنة أو وظيفة. أيضا " إحتلال".
    n. 1) fairly permanent trade, profession, employment, business or means of livelihood. 2) possession of real property or use of a thing.


    occupational diseaseمرض تسببه الوظيفة أو المهنة,
    n. an illness resulting from long-term employment in a particular type of work, such as black lung disease among miners, or cancer among asbestos installers. If the chances of being afflicted by such an illness are significantly higher than the average in the population, then a former employee may receive benefits from Social Security or worker's compensation for a work-related disability.


    occupational hazardأخطار المهنة, أو الوظيفة.
    n. a danger or risk inherent in certain employments or workplaces, such as deep-sea diving, cutting timber, high-rise steel construction, high-voltage electrical wiring, use of pesticides, painting bridges and many factories. The risk factor may limit insurance coverage of death or injury while at work.



    of counselالمحامى المُوكل,الذى يقوم بإعداد القضية.
    adj. reference to an attorney who is not actively involved in the day-to-day work of a law firm, but may be available in particular matters or for consultation. This designation often identifies a semi-retired partner, an attorney who occasionally uses the office for a few clients or one who only consults on a particular case or on his/her specialty. Putting the name of the attorney "of counsel" on a law firm's stationery gives the office the prestige of the lawyer's name and reputation, without requiring his/her full-time presence.


    off calendarأمر القاضى بشطب قضية من سجل القضايا التى تنتظر دورها.
    adj. refers to an order of the court to take a lawsuit, petition or motion off the list of pending cases or motions which are scheduled to be heard. A case or motion will be ordered off calendar if the lawyers agree (stipulate) to drop it, if the moving party's lawyer fails to appear, if a suit is settled pending final documentation or any number of procedural reasons for the judge to determine the case should not proceed at that time. A suit or motion can be put back "on calendar" by stipulation of the lawyers or upon motion of either party.


    Offenderالشخص المنتهك للقانون, مرتكب مخالفة أو جنحة أو جناية.
    n. an accused defendant in a criminal case or one convicted of a crime


    Offenseجريمة من الجرائم المعاقب عليها جنائيا.
    n. a crime or punishable violation of law of any type or magnitude.


    Offerالعرض, أو الإيجاب فى العلاقة التعاقدية,و يقابلها " القبول" ليتم العقد..
    n. a specific proposal to enter into an agreement with another. An offer is essential to the formation of an enforceable contract. An offer and acceptance of the offer creates the contract.



    Officerموظف مسئول فى الحكومة أو أية مؤسسة.
    n. 1) a high-level management official of a corporation or an unincorporated business, hired by the board of directors of a corporation or the owner of a business, such as a president, vice president, secretary, financial officer or chief executive officer (CEO). Such officers have the actual or apparent authority to contract or otherwise act on behalf of the corporation or business. 2) a public official with executive authority ranging from city manager to governor. 3) a law enforcement person such as a policeman or woman, deputy sheriff or federal marshal


    officer of the courtجميع من يعملون فى الحقل القضائى, مثل القاضى, المحامين, الإدعاء, الحاجب, كتاب المحكمة, و سكرتير القاضى.
    n. any person who has an obligation to promote justice and effective operation of the judicial system, including judges, the attorneys who appear in court, bailiffs, clerks and other personnel. As officers of the court lawyers have an absolute ethical duty to tell judges the truth, including avoiding dishonesty or evasion about reasons the attorney or his/her client is not appearing, the location of documents and other matters related to conduct of the courts.


    Officialرسمى, أو شخص له صفة رسمية, أو مكز عالى فى مؤسسة.
    1) adj. referring to an act, document or anything sanctioned or authorized by a public official or public agency. The term can also apply to an organizational act or product which is authorized by the organization, such as an Official Boy Scout knife or emblem, an official warranty, membership card or set of rules. 2) n. a public officer or governmental employee who is empowered to exercise judgment. 3) n. an officer of a corporation or business.


    official misconductإخلال بالوظيفة.
    n. improper and/or illegal acts by a public official which violate his/her duty to follow the law and act on behalf of the public good. Often such conduct is under the guise or "color" of official authority


    offsetيلغى, أو يدعى دين مقابل
    1) n. also called a "setoff," the deduction by a debtor from a claim or demand of a debt or obligation. Such an offset is based upon a counterclaim against the party making the original claim. Example: Harry Hardhead makes a claim or files a lawsuit asking for $20,000 from Danny Debtor as the final payment in purchase of a restaurant; as part of his defense Debtor claims an offset of $10,000 for alleged funds owed by Hardhead for repairs Debtor made on property owned by Hardhead, thus reducing the claim of Hardhead to $10,000. 2) v. to counterclaim an alleged debt owed by a claimant to reduce the demand of that claimant.


    offshore corporationالشركات الأجنبية,( بالنسبة للبلد الأصل)
    n. a corporation chartered under the laws of a country other than the United States. Some countries (particularly in the Caribbean) are popular nations of incorporation since they have little corporate regulation or taxes and only moderate management fees. Professional trustees and nominal officials in the country of incorporation perform routine contacts with the local government but take no active part in management. The reasons for the use of offshore corporations are best known to the incorporators, but may include avoidance of taxes, ease of international operations, freedom from state regulation and placement of funds in accounts out of the country.


    ommision. الإغفال, أو الإمتناع عن القيام بعمل واجب.
    n. 1) failure to perform an act agreed to, where there is a duty to an individual or the public to act (including omitting to take care) or where it is required by law. Such an omission may give rise to a lawsuit in the same way as a negligent or improper act. 2) inadvertently leaving out a word, phrase or other language from a contract, deed, judgment or other document. If the parties agree that the omission was due to a mutual mistake, the document may be "reformed," but this may require a petition for a court order making the correction if it had been relied upon by government authorities or third parties.


    on demand. السداد فور الطلب
    adj. in a promissory note, a requirement that the amount due must be paid when the person to whom the funds are owed demands payment (rather than upon a certain date or on installments). Such a note is called a "demand note."


    on file مدرجة رسميا فى المحكمة للنظر.
    prep. having been formally filed with the clerk of the court or the judge, such as a pleading is "on file."


    on or aboutمثل القول" فى اليوم الفلانى, أو حوالى هذا اليوم"
    prep. a phrase referring to a date or place used in a complaint in a lawsuit or criminal charge if there is any uncertainty at all, in order to protect the person making the allegations of fact from being challenged as being inaccurate. Thus, a complaint will read "On or about July 11, 1994, Defendant drove his vehicle negligently and without due care on or about the corner of Sunset and Vine Streets…."

    on or before .فى الكمبيالات, يذكر " السداد فى تاريخ كذا أو قبله" .
    prep. a phrase usually found in a contract or promissory note, designating performance or payment by a particular date, but which may be done prior to that date.


    on the meritsقرار المحكمة يكون مبنيا بجدارة و استحقاق على الأدلة الواردة فى الدعوى.
    adj. referring to a judgment, decision or ruling of a court based upon the facts presented in evidence and the law applied to that evidence. A judge decides a case "on the merits" when he/she bases the decision on the fundamental issues and considers technical and procedural defenses as either inconsequential or overcome. Example: An attorney is two days late in filing a set of legal points and authorities in opposition to a motion to dismiss. Rather than dismiss the case based on this technical procedural deficiency, the judge considers the case "on the merits" as if this mistake had not occurred.


    on the standالفترة التى يمضيها الشاهد أثناء الإدلاء بشهادته.
    prep. testifying during a trial, in which the witness almost always sits in a chair beside the judge's bench, often raised above the floor level of the courtroom and behind a knee-high panel.


    open courtالمحاكمة العلنية.
    n. the conduct of judicial proceedings (trials, hearings and routine matters such as trial settings) in which the public may be present. Some hearings and discussions are held in the judge's chambers ("in camera") or with the courtroom cleared of non-participants and/or the jury such as adoptions, sanity hearings, juvenile criminal charges and arguments over evidence and motions which might prejudice the jury. The Sixth Amendment to the Constitution, later applied to the states under the 14th Amendment, guarantees criminal defendants a "public trial," so all criminal proceedings are held in
    "open court." This does not apply to pre-trial negotiations and procedural and motion discussions with the judge, which are usually held in chambers.


    opening statementالبيان الإفتتاحى للقضية من قبل الإدعاء, ثم الدفاع.
    n. the explanation by the attorneys for both sides at the beginning of the trial of what will be proved during the trial. The defendant's attorney may delay the opening statement for the defense until the plaintiff's evidence has been introduced. Unlike a "closing argument," the opening statement is supposed to be a factual presentation and not an argument


    operation of lawتغيير ناشئ عن القانون, و ليس على قرار محكمة.
    n. a change or transfer which occurs automatically due to existing laws and not an agreement or court order. Examples: a joint tenant obtains full title to real property when the other joint tenant dies; a spouse in a community property state will take title to all community property if the spouse dies without a will that leaves some of the dead mate's interest in the community property to another; or a guardianship of a minor ad litem (for purposes of a lawsuit) ends automatically upon the child turning 18.


    Opinionرأى, أو قرار ناتج عن اقتناع
    n. the explanation of a court's judgment. When a trial court judgment is appealed to a court of appeals, the appeals judge's opinion will be detailed, citing case precedents, analyzing the facts, the applicable law and the arguments of the attorneys for the parties. Those opinions considered by the court to be worthy of serving as a precedent or involving important legal issues will be published in the official reports available in most law libraries. Since appeals courts have anywhere from three to nine judges, there are often "dissenting opinions" which disagree with the majority opinion, and "concurring opinions" which agree with the result, but apply different emphasis, precedents or logic to reach the determination. Normally the majority opinion identifies the author, but some brief opinions are labeled "in banc" (by the bench) or "per curiam" (by the court) in which the author is not specified.
    الساكت عن الحق شيطان أخرس,

    مع تحيات ياسر عبد المجيد

  2. #22
    An Oasis Citizen
    الصورة الرمزية حرفوش
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    افتراضي


    Optionخيار, أولوية الحصول على اختيار
    n. a right to purchase property or require another to perform upon agreed-upon terms. An option is paid for as part of a contract, but must be "exercised" in order for the property to be purchased or the performance of the other party to be required. "Exercise" of an option normally requires notice and payment of the contract price. Thus, a potential buyer of a tract of land might pay $5,000 for the option which gives him/her a period of time to decide if he/she wishes to purchase, tying up the property for that period, and then pay $500,000 for the property. If the time to exercise the option expires then the option terminates. The amount paid for the option itself is not refundable since the funds bought the option whether exercised or not. Often an option is the right to renew a contract such as a lease, broadcasting a television series, the employment of an actor or athlete, or some other existing business relationship. A "lease-option" contract provides for a lease of property with the right to purchase the property during or upon expiration of the lease.


    Or" أو" , للتأكيد أن المقصود لا تعتبر " و" .
    conj. either; in the alternative. It is often vital to distinguish between "or" and "and." Example: Title to the Cadillac written "Mary or Bill Davidson" means either one could transfer the car, but if written "Mary and Bill Davidson," both must sign to change title.



    oral contractعقد شفوى, و قد يتواجد جزء من لعقد كتابة.
    n. an agreement made with spoken words and either no writing or only partially written. An oral contract is just as valid as a written agreement. The main problem with an oral contract is proving its existence or the terms. As one wag observed: "An oral contract is as good as the paper it's written on." An oral contract is often provable by action taken by one or both parties which is obviously in reliance on the existence of a contract. The other significant difference between oral and written contracts is that the time to sue for breach of an oral contract (the statute of limitations) is sometimes shorter. For example, California's limitation is two years for oral compared to four for written, Connecticut and Washington three for oral rather than six for written, and Georgia four for oral instead of 20 for written.


    Orderقرار أو أمر من القاضى لأحد طرفى النزاع. صيحة القاضى عندما يحدث لغط فى. القاعة.
    1) n. every direction or mandate of a judge or a court which is not a judgment or legal opinion (although both may include an order) directing that something be done or that there is prohibition against some act. This can range from an order that a case will be tried on a certain date, to an order that a convicted defendant be executed at the state prison. 2) v. for a judge to direct that a party before the court perform a particular act or refrain from certain acts, or to direct a public official or court employee (like a sheriff) to take certain actions such as seizing property or arresting an AWOL defendant.


    order to show causeأمر من القاضى لأحد طرفى النزاع للحضور أمام المحكمة. ليقدم تفسير
    n. a judge's written mandate that a party appear in court on a certain date and give reasons, legal and/or factual, (show cause) why a particular order should not be made. This rather stringent method of making a party appear with proof and legal arguments is applied to cases of possible contempt for failure to pay child support, sanctions for failure to file necessary documents or appear previously, or to persuade the judge he/she should not grant a writ of mandate against a governmental agency.


    Ordinanceمرسوم أو لائحة من البلديات, و المجالس المحلية.
    n. a statute enacted by a city or town.


    Ordinaryعادى, أى ليس " غير عادى".
    adj. regular, customary and continuing, and not unusual or extraordinary, as in ordinary expense, ordinary handling, ordinary risks or ordinary skill.



    ordinary course of businessالأعمال تسير بالطريقة المعتادة. .
    n. conduct of business within normal commercial customs and usages.



    original jurisdictionإختصاص المحكمة الأصلى( أول درجة, و ليس استئناف).
    n. the authority of a court to hold a trial, as distinguished from appellate jurisdiction to hear appeals from trial judgments.


    Orphanيتيم, فقد والديه وهو صغير.
    n. a child, particularly a minor, whose two natural parents are dead. In some cases, such as whether a child is eligible for public financial assistance to an orphan, "orphan" can mean a child who has lost one parent.



    out of courtالإتفاق خارج المحكمة, مع إمكان عرض الإتفاق على المحكمة لتأكيده.
    adj. referring to actions, including negotiations between parties and/or their attorneys, without any direct involvement of a judge or the judicial system. Most commonly it refers to an "out-of-court settlement" in which the parties work out a settlement agreement, which they may present to the court for inclusion in a judgment approving the agreement so that the parties can request a court to enforce the settlement in case one of the parties reneges and fails to honor the terms of the settlement. Quite often a judgment approving an out-of-court settlement is held in abeyance and replaced by a dismissal if the terms are fulfilled. Some out-of-court settlements are kept confidential and the lawsuit is dismissed.


    out-of-pocket expensesالمصاريف الفعلية التى يتحملها الوكلاء, و التى لم يتم ذكرها فى عقد الوكالة.
    n. moneys paid directly for necessary items by a contractor, trustee, executor, administrator or any person responsible to cover expenses not detailed by agreement. They may be recoverable from a defendant in a lawsuit for breach of contract; allowable for reimbursement by trustees, executors or administrators; or deductible by a landlord from a tenant's security deposit for damages beyond normal wear and tear.


    Outbuilding.مبانى خارجية ملحقة بالمسكن. مثل الجراج, كشك إصلاح, كشك أدوات الحديقة
    n. a structure not connected with the primary residence on a parcel of property. This may include a shed, garage, barn, cabana, pool house or cottage.


    Outlawارج عن القانون, رجل عصابات, عمل غير مشروع .
    n. popularly, anyone who commits serious crimes and acts outside the law.

    Overchargeتكاليف باهظة, مبالغ مبالغ فيها, دفع أكثر مما يستحق .
    v. 1) to charge more than a posted or advertised price. 2) to file a criminal complaint for crimes of greater degree than the known facts support, in an effort by the prosecutor to intimidate the accused.


    overrule يتفق مع طرف ضد الآخر, يرفض الإعتراض.يستعمل سلطة الرفض.
    ,
    v. 1) to reject an attorney's objection to a question to a witness or admission of evidence. By overruling the objection, the trial judge allows the question or evidence in court. If the judge agrees with the objection, he/she "sustains" the objection and does not allow the question or evidence. 2) to decide (by a court of appeals) that a prior appeals decision on a legal issue was not correct and is therefore no longer a valid precedent on that legal question.


    overt actتصرف أكثر من اللازم.
    n. in criminal law, an action which might be innocent itself but if part of the preparation and active furtherance of a crime, can be introduced as evidence of a defendant's participation in a crime. Example: Rental of a van, purchase of explosives, obtaining a map of downtown New York City and going back and forth to the World Trade Center, could each be considered overt acts as part of the terrorist bombing of that building.


    Owe( فعل) المديونية للغير
    v. to have a legal duty to pay funds to another. However, to owe does not make the amount "payable" if the date for payment has not yet arrived.

    Ownيمتلك .
    v. to have legal title or right to something. Mere possession is not ownership.


    Ownerالمالك.
    n. one who has legal title or right to something. Contrary to the cynical adage: "Possession is nine-tenths of the law," possession does not necessarily make one a legal owner.


    Ownershipالملكية.
    n. legal title coupled with exclusive legal right to possession. Co-ownership, however, means that more than one person has a legal interest in the same thing.






  3. #23
    An Oasis Citizen
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    افتراضي

    pain and sufferingالألم و المعاناة الجسمانية و النفسية الناتج عن إصابات و جروح.
    n. the physical and mental distress suffered from an injury, including actual broken bones and internal ruptures, but also the aches, pain, temporary and permanent limitations on activity, potential shortening of life, depression and embarrassment from scarring, all of which are part of the "general damages" recoverable by someone injured by another's negligence or intentional attack. The dollar value of damages for pain and suffering is subjective, as distinguished from medical bills, future medical costs and lost wages which can be calculated, called "special damages."


    palimonyالنفقة القانونية فى علاقات الزواج العرفى( لا توجد فى مصر).
    n. a substitute for alimony in cases in which the couple were not married but lived together for a long period and then terminated their relationship. The key issue is whether there was an agreement that one partner would support the other in return for the second making a home and performing other domestic duties beyond sexual pleasures. Written palimony contracts are rare, but the courts have found "implied" contracts, when a woman has given up her career, managed the household or assisted in the man's business for a lengthy period of time. In the past 20 years palimony suits have proliferated, particularly against celebrities and wealthy businessmen, but the earliest was the famous California case of Sarah Althea Hill v. Senator William Sharon in the 1880s, which Ms. Hill lost. The line between a mutual "affair" and a relationship warranting palimony is a difficult one which must be decided on a case by case basis. Palimony suits may be avoided by contracts written prior to or during the relationship.


    panderسمسار دعارة أو بغاء, قواد, البحث عن زبون للبغاء.
    1) v. to solicit customers for a prostitute. 2) n. a pimp, who procures customers for a prostitute or lures a woman into prostitution, all for his own profit. 3) v. catering to special interests without any principles, such as a politician who says to whatever group he/she is addressing just what they want to hear to win their support, contributions or favors.


    pandererسمسار البغاء, السياسى الذى يروج لأمور يستفيد منها.
    n. 1) a person who panders or solicits for a prostitute. 2) some politicians catering to special interests.


    panel جدول , أو قائمة هيئة المحلفين .
    n. the list of people selected to appear for jury duty.


    paper hangerإسم دارج لمن يحصل على مبالغ باستعمال شيك بدون رصيد.
    n. slang for a person who criminally writes and cashes "bad" checks on accounts he/she either does not have or which have no money in them.


    parالقيمة الشكلية, قدر مكافئ,
    n. 1) an equal level. 2) the face value of a stock or bond, printed on the certificate, which is the amount the original purchaser paid the issuing corporation. However, most common stocks are issued as "no-par value," and the value reflects the current market for the stock. Preferred stocks state a par value upon which the dividends are calculated, and the par value of bonds establishes the final pay-off amount upon maturity, usually many years in the future.


    paralegalالشخص الغير حاصل على مؤهل قانونى, و عنده مهرات قانونية, و يعمل تحت إشراف محامى.
    n. a non-lawyer who performs routine tasks requiring some knowledge of the law and procedures and who is employed by a law office or works free-lance as an independent for various lawyers. Usually paralegals have taken a prescribed series of courses in law and legal processes, which is much less demanding than those required for a licensed attorney. Paralegals are increasingly popular, often handling much of the paperwork in probates of estates, divorce actions, bankruptcies, investigations, analyzing depositions, preparing and answering interrogatories and procedural motions and other specialized jobs. Clients should be sure that the hourly rate charged for paralegals is much less than that for the attorneys.


    paramount titleحق الملكية الذى يتفوق على أية حقوق أخرى للغير.
    n. a right to real property which prevails over any other person's claim of title.


    pardonعفو, الإعفاء من جزء أو كل العقوبة الجنائية. يصدر من الهيئة التنفيذية ( رئيس الحكومة).
    1) v. to use the executive power of a Governor or President to forgive a person convicted of a crime, thus removing any remaining penalties or punishments and preventing any new prosecution of the person for the crime for which the pardon was given. A pardon strikes the conviction from the books as if it had never occurred, and the convicted person is treated as innocent. Sometimes pardons are given to an older rehabilitated person long after the sentence has been served to clear his/her record. However, a pardon can also terminate a sentence and free a prisoner when the chief executive is convinced there is doubt about the guilt or fairness of the trial, the party is rehabilitated and has performed worthy public service, or there are humanitarian rea-sons such as terminal illness. The most famous American pardon was the blanket pardon given by President Gerald Ford to ex-President Richard Nixon in the wake of the Watergate scandal and Nixon's resignation; that pardon closed the door to any future prosecu- tion against Nixon for any crime before the pardon. A pardon is distinguished from "a commutation of sentence" which cuts short the term; "a reprieve," which is a temporary halt to punishment, particularly the death penalty, pend- ing appeal or determination of whether the penalty should be reduced; "amnesty," which is a blanket "forgetting" of possible criminal charges due to a change in public circumstances (such as the end of a war or the draft system); or a "reduction in sentence," which shortens a sentence and can be granted by a judge or an executive.


    parentالأب أو الأم ( الطبيعى) و لكن يمكن إستعمال هذا اللفظ فى حالات (إفتراضية) أخرى.
    n. the lawful and natural father or mother of a person. The word does not mean grandparent or ancestor, but can include an adoptive parent as a replacement for a natural parent.


    parental neglectجريمة إهمال الآباء و الأمهات لأطفالهم.
    n. a crime consisting of acts or omissions of a parent (including a stepparent, adoptive parent or someone who, in practical terms, serves in a parent's role) which endangers the health and life of a child or fails to take steps necessary to the proper raising of a child. The neglect can include leaving a child alone when he or she needs protection; failure to provide food, clothing, medical attention or education to a child; or placing the child in dangerous or harmful circumstances, including exposing the child to a violent, abusive or sexually predatory person.


    pari delictoخطأ مساوى لخطأ آخر.
    adj. equal fault.


    parishالأبرشية. الدائرة المحلية.
    n. 1) a geographic area served by a church (particularly Catholic) originally measured by whether people living in the area could walk to the church. 2) in Louisiana, the governmental equivalent of a county.


    parodyإستعمال أغنية بعد تغيير كلماتها و جعلها ساخرة أو كوميدية.
    n. the humorous use of an existing song, play, or writing which changes the words to give farcical and ironic meaning. Parodies have been challenged as copyright infringements on the original works, particularly since some have reaped terrific profits. Recent decisions favor the parodies and say they have an originality of their own and, thus, are not infringements. There is a free speech issue involved in these decisions since parodies traditionally have so- cial and political significance.


    parol شفوى.
    adj. oral.


    paroleإخلاء سبيل مبكر و مشروط, و يستمر المفرج عنه تحت المراقبة بقية المدة.
    n. 1) the release of a convicted criminal defendant after he/she has completed part of his/her prison sentence, based on the concept that during the period of parole, the released criminal can prove he/she is rehabilitated and can "make good" in society. A parole generally has a specific period and terms such as reporting to a parole officer, not associating with other ex-convicts, and staying out of trouble. Violation of the terms may result in revocation of parole and a return to prison to complete his/her sentence. 2) a promise by a prisoner of war that if released he will not take up arms again.


    partial جزئى, غير كامل.
    adj. not complete or entire.


    partial breachمخالفة أو خرق للقانون بصفة جزئية.
    n. the failure to meet a term of a contract which is so minimal that it does not cause the contract to fail or justify breach (breaking the contract) by the other contracting party. A partial breach can be remedied (made up) by a small reduction in payment or other adjustment. Example: a landlord promises to rent an apartment furnished, and when the tenants move in some furnishings are not there. The landlord may lower the rent temporarily until he/she can bring in the missing or expected items.


    partial disabilityعجز جزئى, يستلزم تعويض جزئى.
    n. the result of an injury which permanently reduces a person's ability to function, but still permits some working or other activity. In worker's compensation cases an injured worker is often awarded a percentage rating of permanent partial disability, which will entitle him/her to a money settlement. The percentage payoff is often based on a physician's evaluation of what part of the person's normal functioning is gone.


    partial verdictحكم جزئى, أى أن المتهم مذنب فى بعض التهم, و غير مذنب فى البعض الآخر.
    n. in a criminal trial, the result when the jury finds the defendant guilty of one or more charges but not guilty (or deadlocks) on one or more other charges.


    participateالمساهمة, المساهمة المالية فى الأسهم.
    v. to invest and then receive a part or share, as in business profits, payments on a promissory note, title to land, or as one of the beneficiaries of the estate of a person who has died.


    partition تقسيم الملكية بين الشركاء فى حلات النزاع.
    n. a lawsuit which one co-owner of real property can file to get a court order requiring the sale of the property and division of the profits, or division of the land between the co-owners, which is often a practical impossibility. Normally, a partition order provides for an appraisal of the total property, which sets the price for one of the parties to buy out the other's half. Partition cases are common when co-owners differ on whether to sell, keep or divide the property.



    partnerشريك فى إستثمار أو تجارة.
    n. 1) one of the co-owners and investors in a "partnership" which is an on-going business enterprise entered into for profit. A "general partner" is responsible for the debts, contracts and actions of all the partners in the business, is an equal in management decisions unless there is an agreement establishing management duties and rights, and shares in the profits and losses based on the percentage of the investment (either in money or effort) in the partnership. A "limited partner" does not share responsibility for debts beyond his/her investment, cannot share in management, and shares in profits based on a written agreement. A "silent partner" is no different from any partner except he/she is not visible to the public and has no part in day-to-day management. 2) slang for "domestic partner," usually two people living together, either homosexual or heterosexual, sharing lives and possessions, and not married.



    partnershipشراكة, أو مشاركة فى شركة أو استثمار. ,
    n. a business enterprise entered into for profit which is owned by more than one person, each of whom is a "partner." A partnership may be created by a formal written agreement, but may be based on an oral agreement or just a handshake. Each partner invests a certain amount (money, assets and/or effort) which establishes an agreed-upon percentage of ownership, is responsible for all the debts and contracts of the partnership even though another partner created the debt or entered into the contract, has a share in management decisions, and shares in profits and losses according to the percentage of the total investment. Often a partnership agreement may provide for certain division of management, shares of investment, profit and/or rights to buy out a partner upon leaving the partnership or death. Each partner owes the other partners a duty of full disclosure of information which affects the business and cannot commandeer for himself/herself business opportunities which rightfully belong to the partnership. A partnership which does business under a trade name must file with the county or state a certificate of "doing business under a fictitious name," which gives notice to the public of the names of partners and the business address. A "limited partnership" limits the responsibility for debts beyond the investment to the managing "general partners." The investing "limited partners" cannot participate in management and are limited to specific percentages of profit. A partnership differs from a "joint venture," which involves more than one investor for only a specific short-term project and prompt division of profits. Partnerships are traditionally the most fragile of business arrangements and are often dissolved and subject to disputes. But several million exist in the United States and, ironically, they are the favorite business entity for law firms.


  4. #24
    An Oasis Citizen
    الصورة الرمزية حرفوش
    الحالة : حرفوش غير متواجد حالياً
    رقم العضوية : 6695
    تاريخ التسجيل : Oct 2008
    المشاركات : 1,896

    افتراضي

    partyأحد أطراف القضية, أطراف علاقة تعاقدية, حزب سياسى.
    n. 1) one of the participants in a lawsuit or other legal proceeding who has an interest in the outcome. Parties include plaintiff (person filing suit), defendant (person sued or charged with a crime), petitioner (files a petition asking for a court ruling), respondent (usually in opposition to a petition or an appeal), cross-complainant (a defendant who sues someone else in the same lawsuit), or cross-defendant (a person sued by a cross-complainant). 2) a person or entity involved in an agreement. 3) a common reference by lawyers to people or entities involved in lawsuits, transactions, contracts or accidents, as in "both parties knew what was expected," "he is a party to the contract," "he was not a party to the criminal conspiracy…."


    party wallحائط مشترك بين عقارين,
    n. a wall shared by two adjoining premises which is on the property line, such as in townhouses, condominiums, row houses or two units in a duplex. Both owners are responsible for maintaining structural integrity of the wall, even if the wall is entirely on the property of one of the parties.


    passengerالراكب أو المسافر على قطار أو سيارة.أو سفينة, أو عبارة, أو طائرة.
    n. a rider who has paid a fare on a train, bus, airline, taxi, ship, ferry, automobile or other carrier in the business of transporting people for a fee (a common carrier). A passenger is owed a duty of care by such a carrier and has a right to sue for damages for injuries suffered while being transported without proof of negligence. One tricky issue is whether a person who has entered the depot, station or airport, but not yet purchased a ticket or has not boarded, is entitled to the rights of a passenger to recover for damages. A passenger without payment of fare who is injured must prove the driver's negligence in a suit for damages


    ( passion) heat of passion الجريمة ارتكبت فى حماوة أو سخونة العاطفة.
    n. in a criminal case, when the accused was in an uncontrollable rage at the time of commission of the alleged crime. If so, it may reduce the charge, indictment or judgment down from murder to manslaughter, since the passion precluded the defendant having premeditation or being fully mentally capable of knowing what he/she was doing.


    passive سلبى, غير فعال.
    adj. referring to being inactive. A "passive trustee" is one who has no responsibilities other than to hold title or wait for an event which would activate the trust. "Passive income" for tax purposes includes any income in which there is no effort or active management, and is treated differently for some purposes, such as Social Security income limitations. It may include stock dividends, trust profits, rents with no management involvement and interest on bank accounts.


    patent براءة إختراع, منحة حكومية تمنح لمخترع , تفوض له حق صنع أو بيع اختراع.
    1) adj. obvious. Used in such expressions as a "patent defect" in an appliance. 2) n. an exclusive right to the benefits of an invention or improvement granted by the U.S. Patent Office, for a specific period of time, on the basis that it is novel (not previously known or described in a publication), "non-obvious" (a form which anyone in the field of expertise could identify), and useful. There are three types of patents: a) "utility patent" which includes a process, a machine (mechanism with moving parts), manufactured products, and compounds or mixtures (such as chemical formulas); b) "design patent" which is a new, original and ornamental design for a manufactured article; and c) "plant patent" which is a new variety of a cultivated asexually reproduced plant. Example: Secretary of Agriculture and later Vice President Henry A. Wallace developed hybrid corn which made him rich for life. A utility or plant patent lasts 17 years and a design patent lasts 14 years, but all types require payment of "maintenance" fees payable beginning 3 1/2 years after the issuance to keep them up. Patent law specialists can make a search of patents to determine if the proposed invention is truly unique, and if apparently so, can file an application, including detailed drawing and specifications. While awaiting issuance of the patent, products or designs should be marked "patent pending" or "pat. pending." Upon receiving the patent the product can be marked with the word "patent" and the number designated by the Patent Office. The rights can be transferred provided the assignment is signed and notarized to create a record or "licensed" for use. Manufacture of a product upon which there is an existing patent is "patent infringement" which can result in a lawsuit against the infringer with substantial damages granted. 3) n. a nearly obsolete expression for a grant of public land by the government to an individual.


    patent infringementالتعدى على حق , أو براءة اختراع مملوك للغير.
    n. the manufacture and/or use of an invention or improvement for which someone else owns a patent issued by the government, without obtaining permission of the owner of the patent by contract, license or waiver. The infringing party will be liable to the owner of the patent for all profits made from the use of the invention, as well as any harm which can be shown by the inventor, whether the infringement was intentional or not.


    pawnرهن شيئ مقابل سلفة أو دين.
    v. to pledge an item of personal property as security for a loan, with the property left with the pawnbroker. The interest rates are on the high side, the amount of the loan is well below the value of the pledged property, and the broker has the right to sell the item without further notice if the loan is not paid. Pawnbrokers are licensed by the state.


    payيدفع أو أو يسدد.
    v. to deliver money owed.


    payableدينن استحق السداد.
    1) adj. referring to a debt which is due. A debt may be owed, but not yet payable until a certain date or event. 2) n. a debt which is due. "Payables" are all the liabilities (debts) of a business.


    payable on demandالسداد عند الطلب.
    adj. a debt on a promissory note or bill of exchange which must be paid when demanded by the payee (party to whom the debt is owed).


    payeeالشخص الذى كُتب الشيك لصالحه.
    n. the one named on a check or promissory note to receive payment.


    payment in due courseالوفاء وقت الإستحقاق.
    n. the giving of funds to the holder of a promissory note or bill of exchange when due, without any knowledge that the document had been acquired by fraud or that the holder did not have valid title. The true owner of the bill or note cannot also demand payment, but must look to the recipient of the funds.


    payment in fullالسداد بالكامل.
    n. the giving of all funds due to another. This language is often inserted on the back of a check above the place for endorsement to prove that the payee accepts the payment as complete.


    payorالشخص الذى سيسدد الكمبيالة.
    (payer) n. the party who must make payment on a promissory note


    peaceable possession الحيازة الهادئة, أى على مدى طويل, و بدون إنقطاع.
    n. in real estate, holding property without any adverse claim to possession or title by another.


    peculationإختلاس أموال حكومية.
    n. misappropriation of public (government) funds or property.


    pecuniaryبصفة مالية ( مثل خسارة مالية).
    adj. relating to money, as in "pecuniary loss."


    pedophilia الشخص الذى يستدرج الأطفال لأغراض جنسية ( بتاع عيال).
    n. an obsession with children as sex objects. Overt acts, including taking sexually explicit photographs, molesting children and exposing one's genitalia to children, are all crimes. The problem with these crimes is that pedophilia is also treated as a mental illness, and the pedophile is often released only to repeat the crimes or escalate the activity to the level of murder.


    peeping tomكلمة عامية لوصف الشخص الذى يتلصص على الناس خلال النوافذ و البلكونات, أو الأسطح.
    n. a person who stealthily peeks into windows, holes in restroom walls or other openings with the purpose of getting a sexual thrill from seeing women or girls undressed or couples making love. The term comes from the legendary Tom who was the one person who peeked when Lady Godiva rode her horse naked through the streets of Coventry to protest taxes. Being a peeping tom is treated as a crime based on sexual deviancy, with various names in different states. It forms the basis for a lawsuit by the victim on the basis of invasion of privacy.


    peerالنظير,أو الزميل, أو من نفس المجموعة, أو الطبقة.
    n. an equal. A "jury of one's peers," to which criminal defendants are constitutionally entitled, means an impartial group of citizens from the judicial district (e.g. county) in which the defendant lives. It does not mean a jury ethnically, educationally, economically or sexually the same as the defendant, although in some jurisdictions attempts are made to meet those criteria.


    penal
    adj. referring to criminality, as in defining "penal code" (the laws specifying crimes and punishment), or "penal institution" (a state prison or penitentiary confining convicted felons).


    penaltyغرامة مالية, أو عقوبة .
    n. 1) in criminal law, a money fine or forfeiture of property ordered by the judge after conviction for a crime. 2) an amount agreed in advance if payment or performance is not made on time, such as a "late payment" on a promissory note or lease, or a financial penalty for each day a building contractor fails to complete a job.


    penitentiaryالسجن لمرتكبى الجنايات.و الجنح المشددة. .
    n. a state or federal prison in which convicts are held for commission of major crimes (felonies).


    peopleالناس, و فى هذا المغزى, الدولة أو الشعب , و هذا ما يوصف به الإدعاء, فهو يمثل الشعب أو الدولة.
    n. the designation for the prosecuting government in a criminal trial, as in People v. Capone. Such a case may also be captioned State v. Davis or in federal prosecutions, United States v. Miller.


    perكلمة لاتينية تعنى, " بواسطة" أو " ب",
    prep. from Latin for "by means of" or simply, "by" as in "per day" (by day) or "per capita" (by head).


    per capitaلاتينية, و تعنى بعدد الرءوس, أو عدد الناس.
    adj. Latin for "by head," meaning to be determined by the number of people. To find the per capita cost, the total number of persons are added up and the bill, tax or benefits are divided equally among those persons.


    per diemلاتينية تعنى" يوميا" .
    adj. or n. Latin for "per day," it is short for payment of daily expenses and/or fees of an employee or an agent.


    per seلاتينية, و تعنى ( فى اللغة العامية المصرية " كده" ) أى "بحد ذاتها".,
    (purr say) adj. Latin for "by itself," meaning inherently. Thus, a published writing which falsely accuses another of having a sexually transmitted disease or being a convicted felon is "libel per se," without further explanation of the meaning of the statement


    peremptory بات, أو نهائى, و لا يمكن تغييره( فى اختيار المحلفين.),.
    adj. absolute, final and not entitled to delay or reconsideration. The term is applied to writs, juror challenges or a date set for hearing

  5. #25
    An Oasis Citizen
    الصورة الرمزية حرفوش
    الحالة : حرفوش غير متواجد حالياً
    رقم العضوية : 6695
    تاريخ التسجيل : Oct 2008
    المشاركات : 1,896

    افتراضي




    peremptory challenge تستعمل لوصف حق الإدعاءو و الدفاع فى رفض اختيار بعض المحلفين
    n. the right of the plaintiff and the defendant in a jury trial to have a juror dismissed before trial without stating a reason. This challenge is distinguished from a "challenge for cause" (reason) based on the potential juror admitting bias, acquaintanceship with one of the parties or their attorney, personal knowledge about the facts, or some other basis for believing he/she might not be impartial. The number of peremptory challenges for each side will differ based on state law, the number of parties to a case, and whether it is a civil or criminal trial. The usual phrasing used by lawyers exercising the challenge is "Juror number seven may be excused."


    perfectمثالى, تام, بإنجاز.
    : (with stress on the second syllable) v. 1) to complete; to take all required steps to achieve a result, such as obtaining a lien or other security by legal action or completing and filing all documents to present a case to a court of appeals. A mechanic's lien for labor and/or materials used to improve real property is "perfected" by filing a lawsuit and obtaining a judgment that the lien attaches to the property. 2) to make perfect


    perfectedتم بكفاءة.
    adj. having completed all necessary legal steps to achieve a result, such as perfected title to property.



    performيقوم بأداء عمل أو واجب( تعاقديا) .
    v. 1) to fulfill one's obligations under a contract. 2) to comply with requirements of a court order.



    performanceالأداء المطلوب فى العقد.
    n. fulfillment of one's obligations required by contract. Specific performance of a contract may be demanded in a lawsuit. Partial performance is short of full performance spelled out in the contract, but if the contract provided for a series of acts or deliveries with payment for each of the series, there may be partial recovery for what has been performed or delivered even if there is not full performance.


    perjurerالشخص الذى يحلف أو يقسم كذبا فى المحكمة.
    n. a person who intentionally lies while under an oath administered by a notary public, court clerk or other official, and thus commits the crime of perjury. A perjurer may commit perjury in oral testimony or by signing or acknowledging a written legal document (such as an affidavit, declaration under penalty of perjury, deed, license application, tax return) knowing the document contains false information


    perjuryجريمة الكذب فى المحكمة.
    n. the crime of intentionally lying after being duly sworn (to tell the truth) by a notary public, court clerk or other official. This false statement may be made in testimony in court, administrative hearings, depositions, answers to interrogatories, as well as by signing or acknowledging a written legal document (such as affidavit, declaration under penalty of perjury, deed, license application, tax return) known to contain false information. Although it is a crime, prosecutions for perjury are rare, because a defendant will argue he/she merely made a mistake or misunderstood.


    permanent disabilityعجز مستديم.
    n. an injury which impairs the physical and/or mental ability of a person to perform his/her normal work or non-occupational activities supposedly for the remainder of his/her life. Under worker's compensation laws (covering on-the-job injuries) once the condition is stable, a degree of permanent disability is established even if the employee is able to work despite the physical problem. Permanent disability is also one basis for awarding general damages in a lawsuit for injury suffered due to the negligence or intentional attack of another.



    permanent injuryجرح أو ألم جسمانى أو نفسى مستديم,
    n. physical or mental damage which will restrict the employment and/or other activities of a person for the rest of his/her life. In a lawsuit to recover damages caused by the negligence or intentional wrongful act of another, a permanent injury can be a major element in an award of general damages.


    permissiveجائز أو مصرح به, أو مرخص.
    adj. 1) referring to any act which is allowed by court order, legal procedure, or agreement. 2) tolerant or allowing of others' behavior, suggesting contrary to others' standards.


    permitإذن, ترخيص, إجازة( سماح),
    1) v. to allow by silence, agreement or giving a license. 2) n. a license or other document given by an authorized public official or agency (building inspector, department of motor vehicles) to allow a person or business to perform certain acts. These can include building a structure, using a building, driving on the highway, conducting a retail business, and dozens of other activities. The purpose of permits is supposedly to guarantee that laws and regulations have been obeyed, but they also are a source of public revenue.


    perpetuityأبدية.
    n. forever.


    personشخص, طبيعة, أو معنوى ( مثل شركة) .
    n. 1) a human being. 2) a corporation treated as having the rights and obligations of a person. Counties and cities can be treated as a person in the same manner as a corporation. However, corporations, counties and cities cannot have the emotions of humans such as malice, and therefore are not liable for punitive damages unless there is a statute authorizing the award of punitive damages.


    personal effectsالمتعلقات الشخصية.
    n. things which include clothes, cosmetics and items of adornment. This is not the same as "personalty" which means all tangible property which is not real property, money or investments. The expression is often found in wills ("I leave my personal effects to my niece, Susannah").


    personal propertyممتلكات غير عقارية.
    n. same as "personalty."




    personaltyممتلكات غير عقارية
    n. movable assets (things, including animals) which are not real property, money or investments.


    petit juryهيئة محلفين مصغرة.
    n. old-fashioned name for the jury sitting to hear a lawsuit or criminal prosecution, called "petit" (small) to distinguish it from a "grand" jury, which has other duties.


    petitionإلتماس, تظلم, عريضة, توسل .
    1) n. a formal written request to a court for an order of the court. It is distinguished from a complaint in a lawsuit which asks for damages and/or performance by the opposing party. Petitions include demands for writs, orders to show cause, modifications of prior orders, continuances, dismissal of a case, reduction of bail in criminal cases, a decree of distribution of an estate, appointment of a guardian, and a host of other matters arising in legal actions. 2) n. a general term for a writing signed by a number of people asking for a particular result from a private governing body (such as a homeowners association, a political party, or a club). 3) in public law, a writing signed by a number of people which is required to place a proposition or ordinance on the ballot, nominate a person for public office, or demand a recall election. Such petitions for official action must be signed by a specified number of registered voters (such as five percent). 4) v. to make a formal request of a court; to present a written request to an organization's governing body signed by one or more members. 5) n. a suit for divorce in some states, in which the parties are called petitioner and respondent.


    petitioner مقدم الإلتماس أو التظلم أو العريضة.
    n. one who signs and/or files a petition.


    petty larcenyسرقة أموال أو أشياء ضئيلة القيمة.
    n. a term used in many states for theft of a small amount of money or objects of little value (such as less than $500). It is distinguished from grand larceny, which is theft of property of greater worth and a felony punishable by a term in state prison. Petty larceny is a misdemeanor with a maximum punishment of a term in the county jail. States which only use the term "larceny" often treat theft of smaller amounts as a misdemeanor in charging and sentencing.


    physician-patient privilegeخصوصية العلاقة بين الطبيب و المريض,
    n. the right and obligation of a physician to refuse to testify in a trial or other legal proceeding about any statement made to him/her by a patient on the basis that any communication between doctor and patient is confidential. A patient could sue the physician for damages if the doctor breaches the confidence by testifying. Of course, in most trials involving injuries the physician will testify with the plaintiff's permission. Note: when the defendant's physician examines the injured plaintiff, the plaintiff has given permission for that examination and potential testimony, so a plaintiff must be cautious in making statements.


    picketing. الوقوف فى مظاهرة أمام مكان حكومى, أو شركة, إحتجاجا و شكوى, و منع دخول أو خروج أحد
    n. standing or parading near a business or government office usually with signs of protest or claims in labor disputes or public policy controversies (peace marches to pro- or anti-abortion advocates). Picketing is constitutionally guaranteed as free speech, but in some cases it may be limited by court order to prevent physical combat, blocking of entrances or threats to the public safety



    pilferageالسرقة أو الإختلاس, نشل.
    n. a crime of theft of little things, usually from shipments or baggage


    pimpقواد, سمسار دعارة.
    n. a person who procures a prostitute for customers or vice versa, sharing the profits of the person's activities. Supposedly he provides protection for the prostitutes, but quite often he will threaten, brutalize, rape, cheat and induce drug addiction of the prostitutes. A pimp commits the crime of pandering.


    piracyالقرصنة,
    n. the crime of robbery of ships or boats on the oceans. Accusation, trial and punishment of pirates may be under international agreement applicable anywhere, or under the laws of the particular nation where the accused has been captured.


    plagiarismنسبة عمل أدبى إلى شخص غير صاحبه.
    n. taking the writings or literary concepts (a plot, characters, words) of another and selling and/or publishing them as one's own product. Quotes which are brief or are acknowledged as quotes do not constitute plagiarism. The actual author can bring a lawsuit for appropriation of his/her work against the plagiarist and recover the profits. Normally plagiarism is not a crime, but it can be used as the basis of a fraud charge or copyright infringement if prior creation can be proved.


    plain errorخطأ واضح .
    n. a mistake by the trial court found by a court of appeals to be very obvious and sufficient to require reversal of the trial decision.

    plaintiffالمدعى فى القضايا المدنية.
    n. the party who initiates a lawsuit by filing a complaint with the clerk of the court against the defendant(s) demanding damages, performance and/or court determination of rights.


    plaintiff's attorneyمحامى المدعى المدنى.
    n. the attorney who represents a plaintiff (the suing party) in a lawsuit. In lawyer parlance a "plaintiff's attorney" refers to a lawyer who regularly represents persons who are suing for damages, while a lawyer who is regularly chosen by an insurance company to represent its insureds is called a "defense attorney."


    pleaالرد على التهمة بالقول مذنب أو غير مذنب.
    n. 1) in criminal law, the response by an accused defendant to each charge of the commission of a crime. Pleas normally are "not guilty," "guilty," "no contest" (admitting the facts, but unwilling to plead "guilty," thus resulting in the equivalent of a "guilty" verdict but without admitting the crime), or "not guilty by reason of insanity" (at the time of the criminal act). However, the accused may make a "dilatory plea" challenging the jurisdiction of the court or claiming that he/she is the wrong defendant, requiring a special hearing. He/she may admit the acts but have excuses to be considered (a "plea in abatement"), which may affect the judge's sentence. Pleas are entered orally at arraignment (first court appearance) or a continued (postponed) arraignment. If after a preliminary hearing the judge determines the defendant must face trial for a felony, he/she will have to enter a plea again before a judge of the trial court. 2) any written answer or other response filed by a defendant to a complaint or petition in a civil lawsuit.

  6. #26
    An Oasis Citizen
    الصورة الرمزية حرفوش
    الحالة : حرفوش غير متواجد حالياً
    رقم العضوية : 6695
    تاريخ التسجيل : Oct 2008
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    افتراضي



    plea bargain( غير معمول به فى مصر) مساومة بين الإدعاء و الدفاع بأسقاط بعض التهم, مقابل اعتراف المتهم ببعض التهم.
    n. in criminal procedure, a negotiation between the defendant and his attorney on one side and the prosecutor on the other, in which the defendant agrees to plead "guilty" or "no contest" to some crimes, in return for reduction of the severity of the charges, dismissal of some of the charges, the prosecutor's willingness to recommend a particular sentence or some other benefit to the defendant. Sometimes one element of the bargain is that the defendant reveal information such as location of stolen goods, names of others participating in the crime or admission of other crimes (such as a string of burglaries). The judge must agree to the result of the plea bargain before accepting the plea. If he does not, then the bargain is cancelled. Reasons for the bargain include a desire to cut down on the number of trials, danger to the defendant of a long term in prison if convicted after trial and the ability to get information on criminal activity from the defendant. There are three dangers: a) an innocent defendant may be pressured into a confession and plea out of fear of a severe penalty if convicted; b) particularly vicious criminals will get lenient treatment and be back "on the street" in a short time; c) results in unequal treatment. Public antipathy to plea bargaining has led to some state statutes prohibiting the practice, but informal discussions can get around the ban.


    pleadيدافع أمام القضاء.
    v. 1) in civil lawsuits and petitions, to file any document (pleading) including complaints, petitions, declarations, motions and memoranda of points and authorities. 2) in criminal law, to enter a plea of a defendant in response to each charge of criminal conduct.


    pleadingالمرافعة من الإدعاء و الدفاع , أمام المحكمة.
    n. 1) every legal document filed in a lawsuit, petition, motion and/or hearing, including complaint, petition, answer, demurrer, motion, declaration and memorandum of points and authorities (written argument citing precedents and statutes). Laypersons should be aware that, except possibly for petitions from prisoners, pleadings are required by state or federal statutes and/or court rules to be of a particular form and format: typed, signed, dated, with the name of the court, title and number of the case, name, address and telephone number of the attorney or person acting for himself/herself (in pro per) included. 2) the act of preparing and presenting legal documents and arguments. Good pleading is an art: clear, logical, well-organized and comprehensive.


    pledgeضمان أو رهن, مقابل مالى للإفراج بكفالة.
    v. to deposit personal property as security for a personal loan of money. If the loan is not repaid when due, the personal property pledged shall be forfeit to the lender. The property is known as collateral. To pledge is the same as to pawn. 2) to promise to do something.


    plenaryكامل, غطى كل شيئ,
    adj. full, complete, covering all matters, usually referring to an order, hearing or trial.


    police courtمحاكم بلدية للمخالفات, و يترأسها شخص ليس من القضاء, و لا يوجد هذا المنظام فى مصر.
    n. in some states a type of municipal court which handles misdemeanors (minor crimes) and traffic violations, as well as conducting arraignments (first appearances) and preliminary hearings of those accused of felonies to decide if there is cause to send the defendant to a higher court for trial. Police courts only handle criminal cases-unlike those municipal courts which also have jurisdiction over some civil cases.


    police powersسلطات الشرطة.
    n. from the 10th Amendment to the Constitution, which reserves to the states the rights and powers "not delegated to the United States," which include protection of the welfare, safety, health and even morals of the public. Police powers include licensing, inspection, zoning, safety regulations (which cover a lot of territory), quarantines, and working conditions as well as law enforcement. In short, police powers are the basis of a host of state regulatory statutes.



    polygamyالزواج من أكثر من زوجة فى نفس الوقت. .
    n. having more than one wife or husband at the same time, usually more than just two (which is "bigamy"). It is a crime in all states
    bigamyالزواج من زوجتين فى نفس الوقت
    n. the condition of having two wives or two husbands at the same time. A marriage in which one of the parties is already legally married is bigamous, void, and ground for annulment. The one who knowingly enters into a bigamous marriage is guilty of the crime of bigamy, but it is seldom prosecuted unless it is part of a fraudulent scheme to get another's property or some other felony. Occasionally people commit bigamy accidentally, usually in the belief that a prior marriage had been dissolved. The most famous case in the United States was that of Andrew Jackson and his wife Rachel Robards. Ms. Robards' husband had applied for a divorce, but it had not been granted (it required legislative approval) at the time of her second marriage. She completed the divorce and then the Jacksons remarried. Jackson was embarrassed for life over his carelessness (he was a lawyer and a judge), which had hurt his wife's reputation. Having several wives at the same time is called polygamy and being married to several husbands is polyandry.


    polygraphجهاز كشف الكذب.
    n. a lie detector device, from Greek for "many" (poly) "message" (graph) since numerous physiological responses are tested when questions are answered.


    pornographyصور أو كتابة داعرة أو إباحية,
    n. pictures and/or writings of sexual activity intended solely to excite lascivious feelings of a particularly blatant and aberrational kind, such as acts involving children, animals, orgies, and all types of sexual intercourse. The printing, publication, sale and distribution of "hard core" pornography is either a felony or misdemeanor in most states. Since determining what is pornography and what is "soft core" and "hard core" are subjective questions to judges, juries and law enforcement officials, it is difficult to define, since the law cases cannot print examples for the courts to follow.


    positive lawالقانون الوضعى.
    n. statutory man-made law, as compared to "natural law," which is purportedly based on universally accepted moral principles, "God's law," and/or derived from nature and reason. The term "positive law" was first used by Thomas Hobbes in Leviathan (1651).


    posse comitatusإستعمال القوة المسموح بها,
    (pahs-see coh-mitt-tah-tus) n. from Latin for "possible force," the power of the sheriff to call upon any able- bodied adult men (and presumably women) in the county to assist him in apprehending a criminal. The assembled group is called a posse for short.


    possessيمتلك, يحوز,
    v. to own, have title to, occupy, physically hold or have under exclusive control. In wills there is often the phrase "of which I die possessed," in describing the estate.


    possessionالممتلكات, الحيازة.
    n. 1) any article, object, asset or property which one owns, occupies, holds or has under control. 2) the act of owning, occupying, holding or having under control an article, object, asset or property. "Constructive possession" involves property which is not immediately held, but which one has the right to hold and the means to get (such as a key to a storeroom or safe deposit box). "Criminal possession" is the holding of property which it is illegal to possess such as controlled narcotics, stolen goods or liquor by a juvenile. The old adage "possession is nine-tenths of the law" is a rule of force and not of law, since ownership requires the right to possess as well as actual or constructive possession.


    possession of stolen goods حيازة أشياء مسروقة.
    n. the crime of possession of goods which one knows or which any reasonable person would realize were stolen. It is generally a felony. Innocent possession is not a crime, but the goods are generally returned to the legal owner.


    postيلصق إعلان, يرسل بريد.
    v. 1) to place a notice on the entrance or a prominent place on real property, such as a notice to quit (leave), pay rent or of intent to conduct a sheriff's sale, which requires mailing of a copy to the occupant to complete service of the notice. 2) to place a legal notice on a designated public place at the courthouse. 3) a commercial term for recording a payment. 4) to mail.


    post mortemإجراءات تحديد سبب الوفاة.
    n. Latin for "after death," an examination of a dead body to determine cause of death, generally called an autopsy.
    coronerمحكمة الطب الشرعى.
    n. a county official with the responsibility to determine the cause of death of anyone who dies violently (by attack or accident), suddenly, or suspiciously. The coroner or one of his/her staff must examine the body at the scene of such a death and make a report. If the cause is not obvious or certified by an attending physician, then the coroner may order a "coroner's inquest" which requires an autopsy (postmortem). If that is not conclusive, the coroner may hold a hearing as part of the inquest, although this is rare due to scientific advances in pathology


    postdated checkشيك صادر فى موعد قبل التاريخ المحدد عليه.
    n. a check delivered now with a written date in the future, so that it cannot be cashed until that date. The danger to the recipient is that such a check is legally only a promissory note due at the later date, and if the account is closed or short when the check is presented at the bank, the payee has no rights to demand payment by the bank or claim that the delivery of a bad check was criminal.


    potكلمة دارجة للمخدرات, مثل الحشيش و الماريوانا.
    n. slang for marijuana, an illeg- al narcotic.


    powerسلطة, قوة,
    n. the right, authority and ability to take some action or accomplish something, including demanding action, executing documents, contracting, taking title, transferring, exercising legal rights and many other acts.


    power of attorneyتوكيل عام أو خاص.
    n. a written document signed by a person giving another person the power to act in conducting the signer's business, including signing papers, checks, title documents, contracts, handling bank accounts and other activities in the name of the person granting the power. The person receiving the power of attorney (the agent) is "attorney in fact" for the person giving the power, and usually signs documents as "Melinda Hubbard, attorney in fact for Guilda Giver." There are two types of power of attorney: a) general power of attorney, which covers all activities, and b) special power of attorney, which grants powers limited to specific matters, such as selling a particular piece of real estate, handling some bank accounts or executing a limited partnership agreement. A power of التماس للمحكمة Usually the signer acknowledges before a notary public that he/she executed the power, so that it is recordable if necessary, as in a real estate transaction.


    practicableممكن عمله, عملى .
    adj. when something can be done or performed.


    practice الممارسة, التدريب,
    1) n. custom or habit as shown by repeated action, as in "it is the practice in the industry to confirm orders before shipping." 2) n. the legal business, as in "law practice," or "the practice of the law." 3) v. to repeat an activity in order to maintain or improve skills, as "he practices the violin every evening." 4) v. to conduct a law business, as "she practices law in St. Louis."


    prayإلتماس للمحكمة بإصدار قرار.
    v. to formally request judicial judgment, relief and/or damages at the end of a complaint or petition.


    prayerتوسل للمحكمة لطلب العون و الإنقاذ.
    n. the specific request for judgment, relief and/or damages at the conclusion of a complaint or petition. A typical prayer would read: "The plaintiff prays for 1) special damages in the sum of $17,500; 2) general damages according to proof [proved in trial]; 3) reasonable attorney's fees; 4) costs of suit; and 5) such other and further relief as the court shall deem proper." A prayer gives the judge an idea of what is sought, and may become the basis of a judgment if the defendant defaults (fails to file an answer). Sometimes a plaintiff will inflate damages in the prayer for publicity or intimidation purposes, or because the plaintiff believes that a gigantic demand will be a better starting point in negotiations. However, the ridiculous multi-million prayers in smaller cases make plaintiffs look foolish and unrealistic.


    precatoryطلب تضرعى أو توسلى.
    adj. referring to a wish or advisory suggestion which does not have the force of a demand or a request which under the law must be obeyed. Thus "precatory words" in a will or trust would express a "hope that my daughter will keep the house in the family," but do not absolutely prevent her from selling it.


    precedentسابقة قضائية,
    1) n. a prior reported opinion of an appeals court which establishes the legal rule (authority) in the future on the same legal question decided in the prior judgment. Thus, "the rule in Fishbeck v. Gladfelter is precedent for the issue before the court in this case." The doctrine that a lower court must follow a precedent is called stare decisis 2) adj. before, as in the term "condition precedent," which is a situation which must exist before a party to a contract has to perform.
    stare decisisجملة لاتينية تعنى" رجاء تأييد القرار" أى إتبع نفس القرار فى موقف مماثل.
    : (stah-ree duh-sigh-sis) n. Latin for "to stand by a decision," the doctrine that a trial court is bound by appellate court decisions (precedents) on a legal question which is raised in the lower court. Reliance on such precedents is required of trial courts until such time as an appellate court changes the rule, for the trial court cannot ignore the precedent (even when the trial judge believes it is "bad law").

  7. #27
    An Oasis Citizen
    الصورة الرمزية حرفوش
    الحالة : حرفوش غير متواجد حالياً
    رقم العضوية : 6695
    تاريخ التسجيل : Oct 2008
    المشاركات : 1,896

    افتراضي



    predeceaseالوفاة قبل شخص آخر.
    v. to die before someone else, as "if my brother, Harry, should predecease me, his share of my estate I give to his son, Eugene."


    preemptionالقانون الأعلى يسود,
    n. the rule of law that if the federal government through Congress has enacted legislation on a subject matter it shall be controlling over state laws and/or preclude the state from enacting laws on the same subject if Congress has specifically stated it has "occupied the field." If Congress has not clearly claimed preemption, a federal or state court may decide the issue on the basis of history of the legislation (debate in Congress) and practice. Example: federal standards of meat or other products have preempted state laws. However, federal and state legislation on narcotics control may parallel each other.


    preemptive rightحق الشفعة, أى حق الشركاء فى شراء نصيب شريك يريد البيع, قبل أى شخص آخر.
    n. the right of a shareholder in a corporation to have the first opportunity to purchase a new issue of stock of that corporation in proportion to the amount of stock already owned by the shareholder



    preferenceتفضيل الدفع لأحد الدائنين فى حالات التصفية الإفلاسية. .
    n. in bankruptcy, the payment of a debt to one creditor rather than dividing the assets equally among all those to whom he/she/it owes money, often by making a payment to a favored creditor just before filing a petition to be declared bankrupt. Such a preference is prohibited by law, and the favored creditor must pay the money to the bankruptcy trustee. However, the bankruptcy court may give secured creditors (with a judgment, lien, deed of trust, mortgage or collateralized loan) a legal preference over "general" creditors in distributing available funds or assets.



    preliminary hearingفى القضايا الجنائية, تتحقق المحكمة من تواجد أدلة جادة كافية للنظر فى القضية., و يسمى ذلك " سماع تمهيدى".
    n. in criminal law, a hearing to determine if a person charged with a felony (a serious crime punishable by a term in the state prison) should be tried for the crime charged, based on whether there is some substantial evidence that he/she committed the crime. A preliminary hearing is held in the lowest local court (municipal or police court), but only if the prosecutor has filed the charge without asking the Grand Jury for an indictment for the alleged crime. Such a hearing must be held within a few days after arraignment (presentation in court of the charges and the defendant's right to plead guilty or not guilty). Since neither side wants to reveal its trial strategy, the prosecution normally presents only enough evidence and testimony to show the probability of guilt, and defendants often put on no evidence at all at the preliminary hearing, unless there is a strong chance of getting the charges dismissed. If the judge finds sufficient evidence to try the defendant, the case is sent to the appropriate court (variously called superior, county, district, common pleas) for trial. If there is no such convincing evidence, the judge will dismiss the charges. In the "Perry Mason" television series, the courtroom scenes were almost always of preliminary hearings.


    premeditationالعمد, سبق الإصرار.
    n. planning, plotting or deliberating before doing something. Premeditation is an element in first degree murder and shows intent to commit that crime.

    premisesالعقارات, المبانى و ما عليها. ,
    n. 1) in real estate, land and the improvements on it, a building, store, shop, apartment, or other designated structure. The exact premises may be important in determining if an outbuilding (shed, cabana, detached garage) is insured or whether a person accused of burglary has actually entered a structure. 2) in legal pleading, premises means "all that has hereinabove been stated," as in a prayer (request) at the end of a complaint asking for "any further order deemed proper in the premises" (an order based on what has been stated in the complaint).


    premiumقسط التأمين, مبالغ إضافية لمزايا أكثر.
    n. 1) payment for insurance coverage either in a lump sum or by installments. 2) an extra payment for an act, option or priority.


    prenuptial agreementإتفاقية مالية قبل الزواج تحدد حقوق كل من الزوجين فى حالة الطلاق.
    n. also called an antenuptial agreement, a written contract between two people who are about to marry, setting out the terms of possession of assets, treatment of future earnings, control of the property of each, and potential division if the marriage is later dissolved. These agreements are fairly common if either or both parties have substantial assets, children from a prior marriage, potential inheritances, high incomes, or have been "taken" by a previous spouse.



    preponderance of the evidenceفى القضايا المدنية, يكون" الدليل الأقوى" هو محك الحكم لصالح طرف ضد آخر.
    n. the greater weight of the evidence required in a civil (non-criminal) lawsuit for the trier of fact (jury or judge without a jury) to decide in favor of one side or the other. This preponderance is based on the more convincing evidence and its probable truth or accuracy, and not on the amount of evidence. Thus, one clearly knowledgeable witness may provide a preponderance of evidence over a dozen witnesses with hazy testimony, or a signed agreement with definite terms may outweigh opinions or speculation about what the parties intended. Preponderance of the evidence is required in a civil case and is contrasted with "beyond a reasonable doubt," which is the more severe test of evidence required to convict in a criminal trial. No matter what the definition stated in various legal opinions, the meaning is somewhat subjective


    prescriptionحق ملكية بالتقادم ( بوضع البد الهادئ لمدة محددة) .
    n. the method of acquiring an easement upon another's real property by continued and regular use without permission of the property owner for a period of years required by the law of the state (commonly five years or more). Examples: Phillip Packer drives across the corner of Ralph Roundup's ranch to reach Packer's barn regularly for a period of ten years; for a decade Ronald Retailer uses the alley behind Marjorie Howard's house to reach his storeroom. In each case the result is a "prescriptive easement" for that specific use. It effectively gives the user an easement for use but not ownership of the property.


    presentmentالتقدم بطلب للوفاء بدين عند حلول الأجل, أيضا, تقرير من هيئة المحلفين مقدم للمحكمة بخصوص ملحوظات لهم.
    n. 1) making a demand for payment of a promissory note when it is due. 2) a report to a court by a Grand Jury, made on its own initiative without a request or presentation of evidence by the local prosecutor, that a "public" crime (illegal act by public officials or affecting the public good) has been committed



    presiding judgeالقاضى الذى يرأس جلسة تتكون من أكثر قاض. رئيس الدائرة لفترة زمينة محددة.
    n. 1) in both state and federal appeals court, the judge who chairs the panel of three or more judges during hearings and supervises the business of the court. 2) in those counties or other jurisdictions with several judges, the one is chosen to direct the management of the courts, usually on an annual or other rotating basis. The presiding judge usually makes assignments of judges to specialized courts (juvenile, probate, criminal, law and motion, family law, etc.), oversees the calendar, and chairs meetings of the judges.


    presumptionأفتراض حدوث أشياء مثل تاريخ اليوم, و أن الشمس تطلع فى الشرق, بدون حاجة لأدلة تثبتها.
    n. a rule of law which permits a court to assume a fact is true until such time as there is a preponderance (greater weight) of evidence which disproves or outweighs (rebuts) the presumption. Each presumption is based upon a particular set of apparent facts paired with established laws, logic, reasoning or individual rights. A presumption is rebuttable in that it can be refuted by factual evidence. One can present facts to persuade the judge that the presumption is not true. Examples: a child born of a husband and wife living together is presumed to be the natural child of the husband unless there is conclusive proof it is not; a person who has disappeared and not been heard from for seven years is presumed to be dead, but the presumption could be rebutted if he/she is found alive; an accused person is presumed innocent until proven guilty. These are sometimes called rebuttable presumptions to distinguish them from absolute, conclusive or irrebuttable presumptions in which rules of law and logic dictate that there is no possible way the presumption can be disproved. However, if a fact is absolute it is not truly a presumption at all, but a certainty.


    presumption of innocenceإفتراض البراءة إلى أن يثبت العكس.
    n. a fundamental protection for a person accused of a crime, which requires the prosecution to prove its case against the defendant beyond a reasonable doubt. This is opposite from the criminal law in many countries, where the accused is considered guilty until he/ she proves his/her innocence or the government completely fails to prove its case.



    pretermitted heirالطفل الذى لا يذكر فى الوصية, أو ولد بعد كتابتها, ومن حقه أن يطالب بنصيب.
    n. the child of a person who has written a will in which the child is not left anything and is not mentioned at all. After the death of the parent, a pretermitted heir has the right to demand the share he/she would have received as an heir under the laws of distribution and descent. The reasoning is that the parent either inadvertently forgot the child or incorrectly believed the child was dead, and did not mean to leave him/her out. Thus, if someone wishes to disinherit a child or omit him/her from his/her will, that parent should specifically state in the will: "I leave nothing to my son, Gordon," with or without a reason. Otherwise there may be unfair and unintended results. Example: Tommy Testator has three children, gives two of them $10,000 each, and the remainder (which turns out to be a million dollars) to set up a scholarship fund for orphans. His omitted child, who has not spoken to him for 20 years, is a pretermitted heir entitled to one-third of the estate, and will receive $340,000 compared to his siblings' specified $10,000 each.


    prevailing partyمن يكسب القضية المدنية, و يحق له المطالبة بأتعاب القضية.
    n. the winner in a lawsuit. Many contracts, leases, mortgages, deeds of trust or promissory notes provide that the "prevailing party" shall be entitled to recovery of attorney's fees and costs if legal action must be taken to enforce the agreement. Even if the plaintiff gets much less than the claim, he/she/it is the prevailing party entitled to include attorney's fees in the collectable costs. Usually there is no prevailing party when a complaint is voluntarily dismissed prior to trial or settled before or after trial has begun.


    price fixingجريمة إتفاق التجار على إحتكار سلع, و تحديد أسعارها.
    n. a criminal violation of federal antitrust statutes in which several competing businesses reach a secret agreement (conspiracy) to set prices for their products to prevent real competition and keep the public from benefitting from price competition. Price fixing also includes secret setting of favorable prices between suppliers and favored manufacturers or distributors to beat the competition.


    prima facie, , يجب أن يثبت الإدعاء تواجد دليل على الجريمة " من أول وهلة" أو "من النظرة الأولى".
    : (pry-mah fay-shah) adj. Latin for "at first look," or "on its face," referring to a lawsuit or criminal prosecution in which the evidence before trial is sufficient to prove the case unless there is substantial contradictory evidence presented at trial. A prima facie case presented to a Grand Jury by the prosecution will result in an indictment. Example: in a charge of bad check writing, evidence of a half dozen checks written on a non-existent bank account makes it a prima facie case. However, proof that the bank had misprinted the account number on the checks might disprove the prosecution's apparent "open and shut" case.


    prime suspectالمتهم الأساسى.
    n. the one person law enforcement officers believe most probably committed a crime being investigated. Once a person is determined to be a prime suspect, the police must be careful to give the "Miranda warnings," or take the risk that any admissions (any evidence gained from the statements) by the suspect may be excluded in trial.


    principalالشريك الأكبر فى شركة أو مؤسسة, صاحب العمل الذى يوظف الغير عنده, المرتكب الأهم لجريمة.
    n. 1) main person in a business. 2) employer, the person hiring and directing employees (agents) to perform his/her/its business. It is particularly important to determine who is the principal since he/she/it is responsible for the acts of agents in the "scope of employment" under the doctrine of respondeat superior. 3) in criminal law, the main perpetrator (organizer and active committer) of a crime, as distinguished from an "accessory" who helps the principal in some fashion. The criminal principal is usually the person who originates the idea of committing the crime and/or directly carries it out, and is more likely to be charged with a higher degree of the crime, and receive a stiffer prison sentence. 4) adj. chief, leading, highest.


    prior restraintمحاولة منع نشر أخبار أو تصريحات عن طريق المحكمة.
    n. an attempt to prevent publication or broadcast of any statement, which is an unconstitutional restraint on free speech and free press (even in the guise of an anti-nuisance ordinance). Stemming from the First Amendment to the Constitution, the ban on prior restraint allows publication of libel, slander, obvious untruths, anti-government diatribes, racial and religious epithets, and almost any material, except if public security or public safety is endangered (false claim of poison in the reservoir or exhortation to commit a crime like a lynching) and some forms of pornography. The theory, articulated by the U.S. Supreme Court in Near v. Minnesota (1931) is that free speech and free press protections have priority, and lawsuits for libel and slander and prosecutions for criminal advocacy will curb the effect of defamation and untruths. Most other nations permit prior restraint by court order or police action when the material appears to be defamatory (hurtful lies), salacious (nasty), or "improper, mischievous, or illegal" (in the words of Sir William Blackstone).


  8. #28
    An Oasis Citizen
    الصورة الرمزية حرفوش
    الحالة : حرفوش غير متواجد حالياً
    رقم العضوية : 6695
    تاريخ التسجيل : Oct 2008
    المشاركات : 1,896

    افتراضي


    prior(s)كلمة دارجة تشير إلى أصحاب السوابق.
    n. slang for a criminal defendant's previous record of criminal charges, convictions, or other judicial disposal of criminal cases (such as probation, dismissal or acquittal). Only previous felony convictions can be introduced into evidence. However, the record of "priors" can have an impact on sentencing, as with prior drunk driving convictions requiring mandatory jail sentences, and "three strikes, you're out," providing for extended sentences for the third felony conviction.


    priorityحق الأفضلية, أو الأولوية.
    n. the right to be first or ahead of the rights or claims of others. In bankruptcy law, the right to collect before other creditors is given to taxing authorities, judgment holders, secured creditors, bankruptcy trustees and attorneys. The right also can apply to mortgages, deeds of trusts or liens given priority in the order they were recorded (in the "race to the courthouse").


    privacyالخصوصية,الإنعزال.
    n. the right to be free of unnecessary public scrutiny or to be let alone. Once a person is a "public figure" or involved in newsworthy events, the right to privacy may evaporate.


    private nuisanceإزعاج خاص, أى إزعاج شخص معين, و يختلف عن الإزعاج العام, الذى يضايق الجميع.
    n. the interference with an individual's peaceful enjoyment of one's property, which can be the basis for a lawsuit both for damages caused by the nuisance and an order (injunction) against continuing the noxious (offensive) activity or condition. Examples: fumes from a factory above the legal limit, loud noises well above the norm, directing rain water onto another person's property, operating an auto repair business in a neighborhood zoned residential, or numerous barking dogs.


    private partsالأجزاء الحساسة من جسم الرجل أو الأنثى.
    n. men's or women's genitalia, excluding a woman's breasts, usually referred to in prosecutions for "indecent exposure" or production and/or sale of pornography.


    privilegeإمتياز, أو منحة, أو إعفاء.
    n. a special benefit, exemption from a duty, or immunity from penalty, given to a particular person, a group or a class of people.


    privilege against self incrimina-tionحق رفض الرد على سؤال حتى لا يجرم الشخص نفسه( إعفاءه).
    n. a right to refuse to testify against oneself in a criminal prosecution or in any legal proceeding which might be used against the person. This privilege is guaranteed by the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution, which provides: "No person…shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself…." Therefore, refusing to answer questions during a trial ("I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to incriminate me") is called "taking the Fifth."


    privileged communicationمناقشة أو حديث بين شخصين, و غير مسموح بنشر مضمونها فى ظروف معينة.
    n. statements and conversations made under circumstances of assured confidentiality which must not be disclosed in court. These include communications between husband and wife, attorney and client, physician or therapist and patient, and minister or priest with anyone seeing them in their religious status. In some states the privilege is extended to reporters and informants. Thus, such people cannot be forced to testify or reveal the conversations to law enforcement or courts, even under threat of contempt of court, and if one should break the confidentiality he/she can be sued by the person who had confidence in him/her. The reason for the privilege is to allow people to speak with candor to spouse or professional counsellor, even though it may hinder a criminal prosecution. The extreme case is when a priest hears an admission of murder or other serious crime in the confessional and can do nothing about it. The privilege may be lost if the one who made the admission waives the privilege, or, in the case of an attorney, if the client sues the attorney claiming negligence in conduct of the case.


    privileges and immunitiesمزايا دستورية , , منها الحصانة فى حالات تمثيل الشعب برلمانيا, و فى حالة الشهادة ضد الغير.
    n. the fundamental rights that people enjoy in free governments, protected by the U.S. Constitution in Article IV: "The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities in the several States," and specifically to be protected against state action by the Constitution's 14th Amendment (1868): "No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States." The definition of "privileges and immunities" was first spelled out by Supreme Court Justice Bushrod Washington in 1823: "protection by the government, with the right to acquire and possess property of every kind, and to pursue and obtain happiness and safety, subject, nevertheless, to such restraints as the government may prescribe for the general good of the whole." However, the exact nature of privileges and immunities which the state governments could limit has long been in dispute, with the U.S. Supreme Court gradually tipping toward protecting the individual rights of citizens against state statutes that might impinge on constitutional rights.


    privityالعلاقة التعاقدية , أى أن الشروط تسرى على الأطراف فقط.
    n. contact, connection or mutual interest between parties. The term is particularly important in the law of contracts, which requires that there be "privity" if one party to a contract can enforce the contract by a lawsuit against the other party. Thus, a tenant of a buyer of real property cannot sue the former owner (seller) of the property for failure to make repairs guaranteed by the land sales contract between seller and buyer since the tenant was not "in privity" with the seller.


    pro bono لوجه الله تعالى , فعل خير, تطوع مجانى.
    adj. short for pro bono publico, Latin for "for the public good," legal work performed by lawyers without pay to help people with legal problems and limited or no funds, or provide legal assistance to organizations involved in social causes such as environmental, consumer, minority, youth, battered women and education organizations and charities.


    pro hac viceهذه المرة فقط, أو لمرة واحدة فقط .
    : (proh hock vee-chay) prep. Latin for "this time only," the phrase refers to the application of an out-of-state lawyer to appear in court for a particular trial, even though he/she is not licensed to practice in the state where the trial is being held. The application is usually granted, but sometimes the court requires association with a local attorney.


    pro perإختصار لكلمة" لشخصه" و خاصة من يقوم بالدفاع عن نفسه بنفسه.
    adj. short for "propria persona," which is Latin for "for oneself," usually applied to a person who represents himself/herself in a lawsuit rather than have an attorney.


    pro rataتوزيع بالنسبة, نسبيا.
    (proh rat-ah or proh ray-tah) adj. from Latin for "in proportion," referring to a share to be received or an amount to be paid based on the fractional share of ownership, responsibility or time used. Examples: an heir who receives one-quarter of an estate may be responsible for one-quarter of the estate taxes as his/her pro rata share. A buyer of a rental property will pay his/her pro rata share of the property taxes for that portion of the year in which he/she holds title.


    pro se" لنفسه" مثل " لشخصه" .
    (proh say) prep. Latin for "for himself." A party to a lawsuit who represents himself (acting in propria persona) is appearing in the case "pro se."


    pro temمن يكون أداءه " مؤقتا" أو يحل محل آخر مؤقتا.
    1) adj. short for the Latin pro tempore, temporarily or for the time being. In law, judge pro tem normally refers to a judge who is sitting temporarily for another judge or to an attorney who has been appointed to serve as a judge as a substitute for a regular judge. When an appeals justice is not available or there is a vacancy, a lower court judge is appointed Justice Pro Tem until a new Justice is appointed. Small claims cases are often heard by an attorney serving as Judge Pro Tem. 2) n. short for a temporary judge as "Sam Collins is Pro Tem today."


    probable causeسبب كاف للشرطة لتفتيش متهم, مثل إرتباك, جرى, هروب .
    n. sufficient reason based upon known facts to believe a crime has been committed or that certain property is connected with a crime. Probable cause must exist for a law enforcement officer to make an arrest without a warrant, search without a warrant, or seize property in the belief the items were evidence of a crime. While some cases are easy (pistols and illicit drugs in plain sight, gunshots, a suspect running from a liquor store with a clerk screaming "help"), actions "typical" of drug dealers, burglars, prostitutes, thieves, or people with guilt "written across their faces," are more difficult to categorize. "Probable cause" is often subjective, but if the police officer's belief or even hunch was correct, finding stolen goods, the hidden weapon or drugs may be claimed as self-fulfilling proof of probable cause. Technically, probable cause has to exist prior to arrest, search or seizure.


    probate إجراءات المحكمة عند النظر فى صحة شروط " الوصية" بعد وفاة الموصى.
    1) n. the process of proving a will is valid and thereafter administering the estate of a dead person according to the terms of the will. The first step is to file the purported will with the clerk of the appropriate court in the county where the deceased person lived, along with a petition to have the court approve the will and appoint the executor named in the will (or if none is available, an administrator) with a declaration of a person who had signed the will as a witness. If the court determines the will is valid, the court then "admits" the will to probate. 2) n. a general term for the entire process of administration of estates of dead persons, including those without wills, with court supervision. The means of "avoiding" probate exist, including creating trusts in which all possessions are handled by a trustee, making lifetime gifts or putting all substantial property in joint tenancy with an automatic right of survivorship in the joint owner. Even if there is a will, probate may not be necessary if the estate is small with no real estate title to be transferred or all of the estate is either jointly owned or community property. Reasons for avoiding probate are the fees set by statute and/or the court (depending on state laws) for attorneys, executors and administrators, the need to publish notices, court hearings, paperwork, the public nature of the proceedings and delays while waiting for creditors to file claims even when the deceased owed no one. 3) v. to prove a will in court and proceed with administration of a deceased's estate under court supervision. 4) adj. reference to the appropriate court for handling estate matters, as in "probate court."


    probationالإفراج عن شخص بعد قضاء قدر من المدة المحكوم بها, الإفراج تحت الإختبار بدون حبس.
    n. a chance to remain free (or serve only a short time) given by a judge to a person convicted of a crime instead of being sent to jail or prison, provided the person can be good. Probation is only given under specific court-ordered terms, such as performing public service work, staying away from liquor, paying a fine, maintaining good behavior, getting mental therapy and reporting regularly to a probation officer. Violation of probation terms will usually result in the person being sent to jail for the normal term. Repeat criminals are normally not eligible for probation. Probation is not the same as "parole," which is freedom under certain restrictions given to convicts at the end of their imprisonment.


    probative الدليل الإثباتى,
    adj. in evidence law, tending to prove something. Thus, testimony which is not probative (does not prove anything) is immaterial and not admissible or will be stricken from the record if objected to by opposing counsel.


    probative factsأدلة لها ثقل إثباتى فى قضية.
    n. evidence which tends to prove something which is relative to the issues in a lawsuit or criminal prosecution.


    procedureالإجراءات المتبعة أثناء نظر القضية, أو أى إجراءات لازمة لصحة الأداء.
    n. the methods and mechanics of the legal process. These include filing complaints, answers and demurrers; serving documents on the opposition; setting hearings, depositions, motions, petitions, interrogatories; preparing orders; giving notice to the other parties; conduct of trials; and all the rules and laws governing that process. Every state has a set of procedural statutes (often called the Codes of Civil Procedure and Criminal Procedure), and courts have so-called "local rules," which govern times for filing documents, conduct of the courts and other technicalities. Law practice before the federal courts operates under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure and the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure. Procedural law is distinguished from "substantive" law, which involves the statutes and legal precedents upon which cases are tried and judgments made.


    proceedingجميع الإجراءات التى تمت أثناء النظر فى قضية معينة.
    n. any legal filing, hearing, trial and/or judgment in the ongoing conduct of a lawsuit or criminal prosecution. Collectively they are called "proceedings," as in "legal proceedings."


    processالإجراءات المتبعة عادة لرفع قضية. .
    n. in law, the legal means by which a person is required to appear in court or a defendant is given notice of a legal action against him/her/it. When a complaint in a lawsuit is filed, it must be served on each defendant, together with a summons issued by the clerk of the court stating the amount of time (say, 30 days) in which the defendant has to file an answer or other legal pleading with the clerk of the court, and sent to the plaintiff. New York has an unusual system in which a summons may be served without a complaint. A subpena is similar to a summons but is a notice to a witness to appear at a deposition (testimony taken outside court), or at a trial. A subpena duces tecum is an order to deliver documents or other evidence either into court or to the attorney for a party to a lawsuit or criminal prosecution. An order to show cause is a court order to appear in court and give a reason why the court should not issue an order (such as paying temporary child support). The summons, complaint, subpena, subpena duces tecum and order to show cause must all be "served" on the defendant or person required to appear or produce, and this is called "service of process." Service of process is usually made by an officer of the court such as a deputy sheriff or marshal, or a professional process server, but can be performed by others in most jurisdictions.

  9. #29
    An Oasis Citizen
    الصورة الرمزية حرفوش
    الحالة : حرفوش غير متواجد حالياً
    رقم العضوية : 6695
    تاريخ التسجيل : Oct 2008
    المشاركات : 1,896

    افتراضي

    process serverالشخص الذى يسلم الإخطارات ( فى مصر, على يد محضر),

    n. a person who serves (delivers) legal papers in lawsuits, either as a profession or as a government official, such as a deputy sheriff, marshal or constable.


    product liabilityمسئولية المنتج, أى من صنّع السلعة, عن الأضرار التى قد تسببها هذه السلعة للمستهلك.
    n. the responsibility of manufacturers, distributors and sellers of products to the public, to deliver products free of defects which harm an individual or numerous persons and to make good on that responsibility if their products are defective. These can include faulty auto brakes, contaminated baby food, exploding bottles of beer, flammable children's pajamas or lack of label warnings. Examples: Beauty Queen Hair Products makes a hair-permanent kit in which the formula will cause loss of hair to women with sensitive scalps, and Molly Makeup has her hair done at the Bon Ton Beauty Shop and suffers scalp burns and loss of hair. Molly has a claim for damages against Beauty Queen, the manufacturer. Big Boy Trucks makes a truck with a faulty steering gear, bought by Tom Holdtight. The gear fails and Holdtight runs off the road and breaks his back. Holdtight can sue Big Boy for the damages. The key element in product liability law is that a person who suffers harm need prove only the failure of the product to make the seller, distributor and/or manufacturer reliable for damages. An injured person usually need only sue the seller and let him/her/it bring the manufacturer or distributor into the lawsuit or require contribution toward a judgment. However, all those possibly responsible should be named in the suit as defendants if they are known.


    profferتقديم دليل أثناء المحاكمة.
    v. to offer evidence in a trial.


    prohibition الحظر, ألمنع, التحريم.
    n. forbidding an act or activity. A court order forbidding an act is a writ of prohibition, an injunction or a writ of mandate (mandamus) if against a public official.


    promiseوعد من شخص لآخر, عادة فى أمور مالية.
    1) n. a firm agreement to perform an act, refrain from acting or make a payment or delivery. In contract law, if the parties exchange promises, each promise is "consideration" (a valuable item) for the other promise. Failure to fulfill a promise in a contract is a breach of the contract, for which the other party may sue for performance and/or damages. 2) v. to make a firm agreement to act, refrain from acting or make a payment or delivery.


    promoter الشخص الذى يقوم بإنشاء شركة, من يروج لأشخاص أو لسلع.
    n. a person who puts together a business, particularly a corporation, including the financing. Usually the promoter is the principal shareholder or one of the management team and has a contract with the incorporators or makes a claim for shares of stock for his/her efforts in organization. Most states limit the amount of "promotional stock" since it is supported [[align=left][/align]align=right][/align]only by effort and not by assets or cash

    proofبرهان على الدليل,
    n. confirmation of a fact by evidence. In a trial, proof is what the trier of the fact (jury or judge without a jury) needs to become satisfied that there is "a preponderance of the evidence" in civil (non-criminal) cases and the defendant is guilty "beyond a reasonable doubt" in criminal prosecutions. However, each alleged fact must be proved separately, as must all the facts necessary to reach a judgment for the plaintiff (the person filing a lawsuit) or for the prosecution (the "people" or "state" represented by the prosecutor). The defendants in both civil suits and criminal trials need not provide absolute "proof" of non-responsibility in a civil case or innocence (in a criminal case), since the burden is on the plaintiff or prosecution to prove their cases (or prove the person guilty).


    propertyممتلكات لشخص طبيعى أو معنوى. .
    n. anything that is owned by a person or entity. Property is divided into two types: "real property," which is any interest in land, real estate, growing plants or the improvements on it, and "personal property" (sometimes called "personalty"), which is everything else. "Common property" is ownership by more than one person of the same possession. "Community property" is a form of joint ownership between husband and wife recognized in several states. "Separate property" is property owned by one spouse only in a community property state, or a married woman's sole ownership in some states. "Public property" refers to ownership by a governmental body such as the federal, state, county or city governments or their agencies (e.g. school or redevelopment districts). The government and the courts are obligated to protect property rights and to help clarify ownership


    property damageإتلاف ممتلكات عن طريق الإهمال, و تستحق التعويض .
    n. injury to real or personal property through another's negligence, willful destruction or by some act of nature. In lawsuits for damages caused by negligence or a willful act, property damage is distinguished from personal injury. Property damage may include harm to an automobile, a fence, a tree, a home or any other possession. The amount of recovery for property damage may be established by evidence of replacement value, cost of repairs, loss of use until repaired or replaced or, in the case of heirlooms or very personal items (e.g. wedding pictures), by subjective testimony as to sentimental value.


    proprietorمالك الممتكات
    n. the owner of anything, but particularly the owner of a business operated by that individual.


    prosecuteإتهام جنائى يستلزم المحاكمة.
    v. 1) in criminal law, to charge a person with a crime and thereafter pursue the case through trial on behalf of the government. This is normally the function of the District Attorney (called States Attorney or city prosecutor in some places) and the U.S. Attorney in federal criminal cases. A state Attorney General may prosecute in crimes of statewide importance, and the U.S. Attorney General, through the Solicitor General, may prosecute for crimes involving matters of national significance. 2) to conduct any legal action by a lawyer on behalf of a client, including both civil and criminal cases, but most commonly referring to prosecution for crimes.


    prosecutionممثل الإتهام. النيابة الغامة التى تتولى القضايا الجنائية.
    n. 1) in criminal law, the government attorney charging and trying the case against a person accused of a crime. 2) a common term for the government's side in a criminal case, as in "the prosecution will present five witnesses" or "the prosecution rests" (has completed its case).


    prosecutorالشخص الذى يقوم بمهمة الإتهام أو الإدعاء.
    n. generic term for the government's attorney in a criminal case, including District Attorney, States Attorney, U.S. Attorney, Attorney General, Solicitor General, or special prosecutor. A special prosecutor may be assigned to investigate as well as prosecute if necessary when a government official is involved directly or indirectly in the possible criminal activity.


    prospectusالنشرة التى تصدرها المؤسسات المالية و الطلوب التزفيع عليا من مسترى السندات أو الأسهم عند الشراء.
    n. a detailed statement by a corporation required when there is an issuance of stock to the general public. A prospectus includes the financial status, the officers, the plans, contingent obligations (such as lawsuits) of the corporation, recent performance and other matters which would assist the potential investor or investment adviser to evaluate the stock and the prospects of the company for profit, loss or growth. The Federal Securities Act requires the filing of the prospectus with the Securities and Exchange Commission and the SEC's approval before any major stock issue. State laws generally require similar documentation for some issuances or offers of sales of stock within the state. Every potential purchaser of shares of a new stock shares must receive a copy of the prospectus, even though they are difficult to understand. Offerings to the public of limited partnership interests may require that a prospectus be prepared and delivered to each investor.


    prostituteداعرة, بغى,
    n. a person who receives payment for sexual intercourse or other sexual acts, generally as a regular occupation. Although usually a prostitute refers to a woman offering sexual favors to men, male prostitutes may perform homosexual acts for money or receive payment from women for sexual services. A woman prostitute who is sent on a "date" to the hotel room or residence of a male customer is commonly referred to as a "call girl."


    prostitutionالدعارة, البغاء.
    n. the profession of performing sexual acts for money. Prostitution is a crime throughout the United States, except for a few counties in the state of Nevada, where it is allowed in licensed houses of prostitution. Soliciting acts of prostitution is also a crime, called pandering or simply, soliciting. Pandering on behalf of a prostitute is called pimping.


    protective custodyالتحفظ على شخص بصد حمايته( مثل حالات بعض شهود الإثبات) .
    n. the act of law enforcement officials in placing a person in a government facility or foster home in order to protect him/her from a dangerous person or situation. Most commonly a child who has been neglected or battered or is in danger from a violent person is taken in as a temporary ward of the state and held in probation facilities or placed in a foster home until a court can decide the future placement of the child. Protective custody is sometimes used to help women threatened by a husband, boyfriend or a stalker, and also for witnesses who have been threatened with physical harm or death if they testify.



    protestالإحتجاج, الإعتراض على قرار,
    1) v. to complain in some public way about any act already done or about to be done, such as adoption of a regulation by a county board, sending troops overseas, or use of the death penalty. 2) v. to dispute the amount of property taxes, the assessed evaluation of property for tax purposes or an import duty. 3) n. a written demand for payment of the amount owed on a promissory note which has not been paid when due or a check which has been dishonored (not paid by the bank).


    proveيثبت, يختبر.
    v. to present evidence and/or logic that makes a fact seem certain. A party must do this to convince a trier of fact (jury or judge sitting without a jury) as to facts claimed and to win a lawsuit or criminal case.



    provisional remedyعلاج, أو حل مؤقت.
    n. a generic term for any temporary order of a court to protect a party from irreparable damage while a lawsuit or petition is pending.



    proviso شرط فى العقد.
    n. a term or condition in a contract or title document.


    proximate causeسبب مباشر "للإصابة مثلا)..
    n. a happening which results in an event, particularly injury due to negligence or an intentional wrongful act. In order to prevail (win) in a lawsuit for damages due to negligence or some other wrong, it is essential to claim (plead) proximate cause in the complaint and to prove in trial that the negligent act of the defendant was the proximate cause (and not some other reason) of the damages to the plaintiff (person filing the lawsuit). Sometimes there is an intervening cause which comes between the original negligence of the defendant and the injured plaintiff, which will either reduce the amount of responsibility or, if this intervening cause is the substantial reason for the injury, then the defendant will not be liable at all. In criminal law, the defendant's act must have been the proximate cause of the death of a victim to prove murder or manslaughter


    proxy الوكالة,الشخص الذى يتم تفويضه للتوقع نيابة عن شخص آخر,
    n. 1) someone who is authorized to serve in one's place at a meeting, particularly with the right to cast votes. 2) the written authority given to someone to act or vote in someone's place. A proxy is commonly given to cast a stockholder's votes at a meeting of shareholders, and by board members and convention delegates.


    public عام, عمومى, الجمهور,
    1) n. the people of the nation, state, county, district or municipality which the government serves. 2) adj. referring to any agency, interest, property, or activity which is under the authority of the government or which belongs to the people. This distinguishes public from private interests as with public and private schools, public and private utilities, public and private hospitals, public and private lands and public and private roads.


    public administrator الولى أو الوصى العام , الذى يتفذ تركة المتوفى ( مثل المجلس الحسبى)
    n. a county official with the responsibility to handle the affairs of someone who has died with no known or available relative, executor or friend. At times the public administrator may be instructed by a court to assume similar duties for a living person when no conservator or guardian is available.


    public chargeالشخص المريض أو المعوق الذى تتولى الحكومة رعايته ( ليس فى مصر)
    n. a general term for an indigent, sick or severely handicapped person who must be taken care of at public expense.


    public defenderالمدافع العام, المحامى الذى تعينه المحكمة لمن ليس لديه محامى.
    n. an elected or appointed public official (usually of a county), who is an attorney regularly assigned by the courts to defend people accused of crimes who cannot afford a private attorney. In larger counties the public defender has a large case load, numerous deputy public defenders and office staff. In each federal judicial district there is also a federal public defender, and some states have a state public defender to supervise the provision of attorneys to convicted indigents for appeals.



    public figureشخصية عامة.
    n. in the law of defamation (libel and slander), a personage of great public interest or familiarity like a government official, politician, celebrity, business leader, movie star or sports hero. Incorrect harmful statements published about a public figure cannot be the basis of a lawsuit for defamation unless there is proof that the writer or publisher intentionally defamed the person with malice (hate).


    public nuisanceإزعاج أو مضايقة عمومية( أى تضايق العموم, و ليس شخص بعينه).
    n. a nuisance which affects numerous members of the public or the public at large (how many people it takes to make a public is unknown), as distinguished from a nuisance which only does harm to a neighbor or a few private individuals. Example: a factory which spews out clouds of noxious fumes is a public nuisance but playing drums at three in the morning is a private nuisance bothering only the neighbors.


    public propertyالملكية العامة .
    n. property owned by the government or one of its agencies, divisions, or entities. Commonly a reference to parks, playgrounds, streets, sidewalks, schools, libraries and other property regularly used by the general public.


    public recordالسجل العام, أى أية ملفات من حق الجمهور الإطلاع عليها.
    n. any information, minutes, files, accounts or other records which a governmental body is required to maintain and which must be accessible to scrutiny by the public. This includes the files of most legal actions. A court will take "judicial notice" of a public record (including hearsay in the record) introduced as evidence. For example: a recorded deed to show transfer of title or a criminal judgment are both public records.


    public useللمنفعة العامة( مثل التواليتات العامة)
    n. the only purpose for which private property can be taken (condemned) by the government under its power of eminent domain. Public use includes: schools, streets, highways, hospitals, government buildings, parks, water reservoirs, flood control, slum clearance and redevelopment, public housing, public theaters and stadiums, safety facilities, harbors, bridges, railroads, airports, terminals, prisons, jails, public utilities, canals, and numerous other purposes designated as beneficial to the public.


    publicationالنشرات, المطبوعات, الجرائد , نشر إعلانات قضائية أو قانونية, الإعلان العلنى.
    n. 1) anything made public by print (as in a news- paper, magazine, pamphlet, letter, telegram, computer modem or program, poster, brochure or pamphlet), orally, or by broadcast (radio, television). 2) placing a legal notice in an approved newspaper of general publication in the county or district in which the law requires such notice to be published. 3) in the law of defamation (libel and slander) publication of an untruth about another to at least one single person. Thus one letter can be the basis of a suit for libel, and telling one person is sufficient to show publication of slander.


    publishينشر علنا و لو لشخص واحد.,
    v. to make public to at least one other person by any means.


    punitive damagesتعويض عقابى, ( يكون عادة مبالغ فيه) .
    n. (synony- mous with exemplary damages), damages awarded in a lawsuit as a punishment and example to others for malicious, evil or particularly fraudulent acts.


    putativeمفترض, أو مزعوم, مثل أب مفترض, أو أم مزعومة( فى قضايا الأحوال الشخصية..
    adj. commonly believed, supposed or claimed. Thus a putative father is one believed to be the father unless proved otherwise, a putative marriage is one that is accepted as legal when in reality it was not lawful (e.g. due to failure to complete a prior divorce). A putative will is one that appears to be the final will but a later will is found that revokes it and shows that the putative will was not the last will of the deceased.

    .
    التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة حرفوش ; 09-05-2009 الساعة 06:05 AM

  10. #30
    An Oasis Citizen
    الصورة الرمزية حرفوش
    الحالة : حرفوش غير متواجد حالياً
    رقم العضوية : 6695
    تاريخ التسجيل : Oct 2008
    المشاركات : 1,896

    افتراضي

    quantum meruitعلى قدر ما يستحق . القيمة الحقيقية للخدمة,
    : (kwahn-tuhm mare-ooh-it) n. Latin for "as much as he deserved," the actual value of services performed. Quantum meruit determines the amount to be paid for services when no contract exists or when there is doubt as to the amount due for the work performed but done under circumstances when payment could be expected. This may include a physician's emergency aid, legal work when there was no contract, or evaluating the amount due when outside forces cause a job to be terminated unexpectedly. If a person sues for payment for services in such circumstances the judge or jury will calculate the amount due based on time and usual rate of pay or the customary charge, based on quantum meruit by implying a contract existed.


    quashيسحق, يلغى , يبطل( القضية, أو الإدعاء).
    v. to annul or set aside. In law, a motion to quash asks the judge for an order setting aside or nullifying an action, such as "quashing" service of a summons when the wrong person was served.


    quasiشبيه, شبه, ليس تماما .
    : (kway-zeye, kwah-zee) adj., adv. from Latin for "as if," almost, somewhat, to a degree (always used in combination with another word). Quasi refers to things and actions which are not exactly or fully what they might appear, but have to be treated "as if" they were.


    quasi community propertyحيازة , أو ملكية, كما لو كانا متزوجين
    n. in community property states, property acquired by a couple who have not been married, but have lived and purchased the property as if they were married. Often this includes property purchased or received by a couple shortly before marriage.


    quasi contractعلاقة تشبه التعاقد, و لكن لا تستكمل أركان العقد,
    n. a situation in which there is an obligation as if there was a contract, although the technical requirements of a contract have not been fulfilled.


    quasi corporation شركة أو مؤسسة غير مسجلة قانونيا.
    n. a business which has operated as a corporation without completing the legal requirements, often in the period just before formal incorporation.


    quasi-criminalالأفعال الغير جنائية, و التى تعاقب عليها المحاكم كما لو كانت جنائية,
    adj. a reference to a court's right to punish for actions or omissions as if they were criminal. The most common example is finding a parent who is delinquent in child support in contempt of court and penalizing him/her with a jail sentence. If a hearing is quasi-criminal the quasi-defendant is entitled to all due process protections afforded a criminal defendant.


    quasi-judicialجهات شبه قضائية.
    adj., adv. referring to the actions of an agency, boards or other government entity in which there are hearings, orders, judgments or other activities similar to those conducted by courts. Example: a public utilities hearing on setting telephone company rates is quasi-judicial.


    Queen's Benchأعلى محكمة فى القضاء البريطانى فى عهد ملكة. منظمة المحاميات الأمريكيات ,
    n. 1) the highest court in Great Britain during the reign of a Queen, so that opinions are identified as a volume of Queen's Bench (QB). 2) in the United States, organizations of women lawyers, dating from when women were a small minority of practicing attorneys and needed to encourage each other, urge employment of women attorneys, protect against discrimination and promote the cause of equality for women lawyers. Recent bar admissions now include close to 50 percent women.


    queryسؤال أو استفسار.
    n. common lawyer lingo for a question to be answered.


    question of fact الأفعال التى يقرر المحلفون ثبوتها من عدمه.
    n. in a lawsuit or criminal prosecution, an issue of fact in which the truth or falsity (or a mix of the two) must be determined by the "trier of fact" (the jury or the judge in a non-jury trial) in order to reach a decision in the case. A "question of fact" may also be raised in a motion for summary judgment which asks the court to determine whether there are any questions of fact to be tried, allowing the judge to rule on the case (usually to dismiss the complaint) at that point without a trial. "Questions of fact" are distinguished from "questions of law," which can only be decided by the judge.


    question of lawما يعتبره القاضى القانون الذى يطبق على الحالة المعروضة عليه.
    n. an issue arising in a lawsuit or criminal prosecution which only relates to determination of what the law is, how it is applied to the facts in the case, and other purely legal points in contention. All "questions of law" arising before, during and sometimes after a trial are to be determined solely by the judge and not by the jury. "Questions of law" are differentiated from "questions of fact," which are decided by the jury and only by the judge if there is no jury.


    quid pro quoشيئ مقابل شيئ, ثمن التبادل المشترك.
    : (kwid proh kwoh) n. Latin for "something for something," to identify what each party to an agreement expects from the other, sometimes called mutual consideration. Example of its use: "What is the quid pro quo for my entering into this deal?"


    quiet enjoymentحق الإقامة بهدوء فى عقار.
    n. the right to enjoy and use premises (particularly a residence) in peace and without interference. Quiet enjoyment is often a condition included in a lease. Thus, if the landlord interferes with quiet enjoyment, he/she may be sued for breach of contract. Disturbance of quiet enjoyment by another can be a "nuisance" for which a lawsuit may be brought to halt the interference or obtain damages for it.


    quiet title actionحق المالك بالتمتع بملكية هادئة, بدون حق آخرين فى إدعاء الملكية.
    n. a lawsuit to establish a party's title to real property against anyone and everyone, and thus "quiet" any challenges or claims to the title. Such a suit usually arises when there is some question about clear title, there exists some recorded problem (such as an old lease or failure to clear title after payment of a mortgage), an error in description which casts doubt on the amount of property owned, or an easement used for years without a recorded description. An action for quiet title requires description of the property to be "quieted," naming as defendants anyone who might have an interest (including descendants-known or unknown- of prior owners), and the factual and legal basis for the claim of title. Notice must be given to all potentially interested parties, including known and unknown, by publication. If the court is convinced title is in the plaintiff (the plaintiff owns the title), a quiet title judgment will be granted which can be recorded and thus provide legal "good title." Quiet title actions are a common example of "friendly" lawsuits in which often there is no opposition.


    quitيترك, يغادر,
    v. to leave, used in a written notice to a tenant to leave the premises (notice to quit).



    quorum النصاب اللازم , عدد من يجب أن يتواجد فى بعض الإجتماعات,لتصبح قانونية.
    n. the number of people required to be present before a meeting can conduct business. Unless stated differently in bylaws, articles, regulations or other rules established by the organization, a quorum is usually a majority of members. A quorum for meetings of corporate boards of directors, homeowners' associations, clubs and shareholders meetings are usually set in the bylaws. The quorum for meetings of governmental bodies such as commissions and boards are usually set by statu


    race to the courthouseمن يحصل على الإذن أو صك الملكية قبل غيره.
    n. slang for the rule that the first deed, deed of trust, mortgage, lien or judgment which is recorded with the County Recorder will have priority and prevail over later recordings no matter when the documents were dated.


    racketeeringإرتكاب الجرائم المنظمة بصفة مستمرة (المافيا) .
    n. the federal crime of conspiring to organize to commit crimes, particularly as a regular business ("organized crime" or "the Mafia


    ransomفدية, دفع مبلغ لإطلاق سراح شخص مختطف.
    1) n. money paid to a kidnapper in demand for the release of the person abducted. Ransom money can also be paid to return a valuable object such as a stolen painting. 2) v. to pay money to an abductor to return the person held captive.


    rapeجريمة الإغتصاب,
    1) n. the crime of sexual intercourse (with actual penetration of a woman's vagina with the man's penis) without consent and accomplished through force, threat of violence or intimidation (such as a threat to harm a woman's child, husband or boyfriend). What constitutes lack of consent usually includes saying "no" or being too drunk or drug-influenced for the woman to be able to either resist or consent, but a recent Pennsylvania case ruled that a woman must do more than say "no" on the bizarre theory that "no" does not always mean "don't," but a flirtatious come-on. "Date rape" involves rape by an acquaintance who refuses to stop when told to. Defense attorneys often argue that there had to be physical resistance, but the modern view is that fear of harm and the relative strengths of the man and the woman are obvious deterrents to a woman fighting back. Any sexual intercourse with a child is rape and in most states sexual relations even with consent involving a girl 14 to 18 (with some variation on ages in a few states) is "statutory rape," on the basis that the female is unable to give consent. 2) v. to have sexual intercourse with a female without her consent through force, violence, threat or intimidation, or with a girl under age. Technically, a woman can be charged with rape by assisting a man in the rape of another woman. Dissatisfied with the typical prosecution of rape cases (in which the defense humiliates the accuser, and prosecutors are unable or unwilling to protect the woman from such tactics), women have been suing for civil damages for the physical and emotional damage caused by the rape, although too often the perpetrator has no funds. Protection services for rape victims have been developed by both public and private agencies. On the other side of the coin, there is the concern of law enforcement and prosecutors that women whose advances have been rejected by a man, or who have been caught in the act of consensual sexual intercourse may falsely cry "rape."


    ratableيستحق دفع ضرائب ( عقارات مثلا) .
    adj. taxable according to value, such as an estate or property.


    ratificationتأكيد تصرف, تصديق على تصرف,إقرار تصرف.
    n. confirmation of an action which was not pre-approved and may not have been authorized, usually by a principal (employer) who adopts the acts of his/her agent (employee).


    ratifyتأكيد, إقرار.
    v. to confirm and adopt the act of another even though it was not approved beforehand. Example: An employee for Holsinger's Hardware orders carpentry equipment from Phillips Screws and Nails although the employee was not authorized to buy anything. The president of Holsinger's ratifies the deal when Phillips delivers the order. A person under the legal age who makes a contract may ratify the contract when he/she reaches majority (usually 18) or may refuse to honor it without obligation.


    rational basisمبنى على أساس المنطق و العقل.
    n. a test of constitutionality of a statute, asking whether the law has a reasonable connection to achieving a legitimate and constitutional objective.


    ready, willing and ableجاهز, و مستعد, و موافق,
    adj. fully prepared to act, as in performing a contract.


    real estateاالأراضى بما عليها من مساكن, و منشآت, و زراعات,
    n. land, improvements and buildings thereon, including attached items and growing things. It is virtually the same as "real property," except real property includes interests which are not physical such as a right to acquire the property in the future.


    real party in interestصاحب حق التقاضى حتى لو لم يكن المالك.
    n. the person or entity who will benefit from a lawsuit or petition even though the plaintiff (the person filing the suit) is someone else, often called a "nominal" plaintiff. Example: a trustee files a suit against a person who damaged a building owned by the trust; the real party in the interest is the beneficiary of the trust.

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