صفحة 9 من 9 الأولىالأولى ... 789
النتائج 81 إلى 90 من 90

الموضوع: أكاديمية " محو الأمية القانونية"

  1. #81
    حـكـيـم الواحة المصريّة
    الصورة الرمزية الأفوكاتو
    الحالة : الأفوكاتو غير متواجد حالياً
    رقم العضوية : 6
    تاريخ التسجيل : Apr 2006
    الدولة : بريطانيا
    العمل : أستاذ فى القانون الإنجليزى(متقاعد)
    المشاركات : 3,742

    افتراضي

    السلام عليكم
    استاذى الافوكاتو
    لى استفسار بسيط
    لى اصدقاء مصرببن متزوجون باجانب وللاسف يوجد بينهم الكثير من المشاكل
    سوء خلافات على الاطفال على الاموال
    يقول بعضهم
    اذا كانت الاجنبيه تحمل الجنسيه المصريه اصبح سهلا على المصرى اخذ حقه منها (داخل مصر )
    و يقول اخرون
    انه لا يوجد فى القانون ما يحمى المتزوج من اجنبيه ولذلك ياخذ حقه عنوه ( بالدراع )

    ارجوا منك بعض الوقت للرد على لان فى كلا الحالتين ارى الخوف فى عيون هولاء الاشخاص على مستقبلهم
    الأخ العزيز الأسكندرانى,

    ردا على سؤالك , أود أن أشير إلى بعض البديهيات التى قد تساعدنا على فهم ابعاد هذه القضية, أى قضية الزواج من أجنبيات.

    طبقا لنظرية " إقليمية القوانين", تنفرد كل دولة بسن القوانين التى تطبق على إقليمها, و لا يحق لدولة أخرى سن قوانين تسرى على دولة أخرى إلا بمقتضى إتفاقات ثنائية( معاملة بالمثل مثلا) أو إتفاقات دولية( حقوق الإنسان, اليونيسكو, قرارات مجلس الأمن .. الخ)

    لهذا, لكى يمكن الرد على سؤالك, يحب أولا أن نفرق بين :

    1- زواج المصرى بأجنبية فى مصر
    2- زواج المصرى بأجنبية فى دولة أجنبية.
    3- ديانة الزوجين.

    فزواج المصرى بأجنبية فى مصر سيجعل شروط عقد الزواج سارية على الزوجين, سواء أكانت الزوجة أجنبية, أو متمصرة.

    و زواج المصرى بأجنبية فى دولة أجنبية سيجعل قانون هذه الدولة هو المطبق فى الخارج, و المعترف به فى مصر, إلا فيما يتعارض مع بعض قواعد الدين الإسلامى, و هذا لا يلغى الزواج, و لكن يبطل بعض أحكامه. و يسرى هذا على الزوجين, سواء أكانت الزوجة مصرية, أم متمصرة.

    و لكن هناك عديد من المشاكل لا ترجع لقانون بلد التعاقد, بل ترجع للفروق بين التقاليد و العادات بين الزوجين.

    و الزواج فى مصر هو خليط من الزواج الدينى, و الزواج المدنى, وهو يفرق بين زواج المسلم من مسلمة, و زواج المسلم من كتابية.

    فزواج المسلم من مسلمة يتم عادة على يد " مأذون" الذى له صفة دينية, و صفة مدنية فى نفس الوقتة, كمندوب للشهر العقارى. و يمكن أن يتم إجراء عقد الزواج فى منزل أو فى نادى, أو فى صالة الإحتفالات بالجوامع.

    و فى حالة زواج المسيحى من مسيحية, تقوم الكنيسة بنفس دور المأذون , و لكن الجزء الدينى من مراسيم الزواج يتم عادة فى الكنيسة.

    أما فى حالة زواج المسلم بكتابية, سواء أكانت مصرية أو أجنبية, فيتم بالصفة المدنية فقط, إى بالتوثيق بالسجل المدنى( الشهر العقارى).

    و فى الدول الغربية, تتم إجراءات عقد الزواج مدنيا, و تقريبا مثلما يحدث فى مصر, و يمكن للزوجين عقد زواج إضافى دينى فى الكنيسة, أو الجامع, أو السيناجوج, و لكن العقد لا بد أن يكون موثقا بالسجل المدنى, و يتم ذلك عن طريق " المسجل المدنى" وهو يعادل المأذون
    . ( Civil Celebrant)

    و فى بعض ولايات أمريكا, يمكن لقضاة بعض المحاكم الدميت أن يقوموا بتوثيق عقد الزواج.

    و لكن بعض الدول الغربية تعترف بشرعية العلاقة بين ذكر و أنثى, متى ثبت ما يسمى بحالة " زواج عرفى", و لكن الفرق بين الزواج العرفى فى مصر, و الزواج العرفى فى الدول الغربية, هو عدم ضرورة تواجد عقد زواج مكتوب( فى مصر العقد العرفى ضرورى لإثبات الزواج العرفى).

    ففى هذه الدول( مثل إنجلترا, أستراليا, نيوزيلاند, الولايات المتحدة, كندا) من عاشر إمرأة غير متزوجة معاشرة الأزواج لمدة تحددها كل دولة, و متى كانت هذه المعاشرة معروفة للملأ, فإن من حق الزوج أو الزوجة " العرفى" التمتع بجميع حقوق الزوجية, بما فيها حق الميراث, و الحق فى المعاش, و الولاية على الأطفال.

    و فى مصر, يعتبر الزواج العرفى زواجا شرعيا, أو دينيا, متى توافرت شروط الزواج الإسلامى, أى الرضاء, و القبول, و البلوغ, و شهادة الشهود( أى عنصر العلانية).

    و لا يعطى الزواج العرفى جميع حقوق الزواج المدنى, حيث أن القانون المصرى الزم الزوجين بتسجيل عقد الزواج, ضمانا لحقوق الزوجين.(الإطلاع على قوانين محكمة الأسرة الجديدة قد تفيد فى هذا الشأن)

    و المصرى لا يمكنه التزوج بأكثر من زوجة واحدة فى الدول الغربية, فإذا كان متزوجا فى بلده بأكثر من واحدة, فإنه لا يمكنه إصطحاب أكثر من زوجة واحدة عند زيارته , أو هجرته إلى هذه الدولة.

    و عقد الزواج بين مصرى و مصرية فى الخارج, هو عقد مدنى, و يمكن أن يتم فى الجامع أو الكنيسة, و لكن شرعيته تستمد من التسجيل, و يعمد كثير من المسلمين إلى تسجيل زواجهم مرة أخرى فى مصر عن طريق السفارات و القنصليات, ضمانا لحقوقهم فى مصر, مثل حقوق الكية,و حضانة الأحفاد, و الإرث, .. الخ.

    لهذا, فإن نظرية أن الحصول على الجنسية المصرية للزوجة الأجنبية يعطيها ضمانا, قول يتوقف على عوامل كثيرة, منها ديانة الزوجين, و تواجد أطفال, و استعداد الزوجة الأجنبية لقبول الجنسية المصرية, التى لا تسقط عنها فى أغلب الأحوال جنسيتها الأصلية, و إنما تجعلها تخضع للقانون المصرى, الذى يجب أن تخضع له فى جميع الأحوال,طوال إقامتها فى مصر.

    و فى النهاية, القوانين لا تحمى حقوق يهدرها أصحابها, و الزواج هو علاقة إنسانية إجتماعية, متى ساءت, فلا توجد قوانين يمكنها إصلاحها. و الحرص فى إختيار شريك العمر هو الضمان الوحيد لحياة آمنة مستقرة.

    أرجو أن أكون قد القيت بعض الضوء على مشاكل أصدقائك,

    وفق الله الجميع فى حياتهم,

    و تقبل أسمى تحياتى.
    أعز الولد, ولد الولد
    إهداء لحفيدى آدم

  2. #82
    An Oasis Pioneer
    الصورة الرمزية الاسكندرانى
    الحالة : الاسكندرانى غير متواجد حالياً
    رقم العضوية : 203
    تاريخ التسجيل : Aug 2006
    المشاركات : 6,988

    افتراضي

    استاذى الفاضل
    كم تعلم انك تشعرنى بوجود من يراعنى حتى لو كنت غريب فى بلاد الغربة
    اشكرك يا استاذى على ردك
    ولكن هل تسطتيع تصحيح ما فهمته ان لم يكن صواب
    ما فهمته الان
    اذا كان المصرى تزوج من اجنبيه فى جمهوريه مصر العربيه تسرى على الزوجان القوانين المصريه
    و تسرى عليهم بنود عقد الزواج الشرعى المسجل فى الشهر العقارى (قسم زواج الاجانب )
    و طبقا لتواجد الزوج فى بلاد الغربه فتسرى عليه قوانين تلك البلد
    فاذا ارد احذ حقه المدنى المذكور فى القانون المصرى و مكتوب فى بنود عقد الزواج عليه بل عودة الى ارض مصر
    هل هذا التصور صحيح

  3. #83
    حـكـيـم الواحة المصريّة
    الصورة الرمزية الأفوكاتو
    الحالة : الأفوكاتو غير متواجد حالياً
    رقم العضوية : 6
    تاريخ التسجيل : Apr 2006
    الدولة : بريطانيا
    العمل : أستاذ فى القانون الإنجليزى(متقاعد)
    المشاركات : 3,742

    افتراضي

    صحيح, و لكن إذا لم تكن الزوجة بصحبته, و مازالت فى بلاد الغربية, فلن يستطيع تطبيق القانون عليها فى بلاد الغربة إذا كان هذا القانون منافيا لقوانين تلك البلاد, مثل التزوج من أخرى عليها

  4. #84
    An Oasis Pioneer
    الصورة الرمزية الاسكندرانى
    الحالة : الاسكندرانى غير متواجد حالياً
    رقم العضوية : 203
    تاريخ التسجيل : Aug 2006
    المشاركات : 6,988

    افتراضي

    استاذى العزيز
    اريد بعض النصائح القانونيه و الاستشارات و اقوال الاباء فيما يلى
    اريد ان انشاء شركه للغوص هنا فى فرنسا
    الافوكا هنا فى فرنسا اسعرهم نار نار و مش عارف ابتدى ازى ولو تكلم واحد فيهم يقولك الكلمه بقد كده
    بجد يا استاذ محمود
    مش عارف ابداء ازى وهل حتكون قريبه من نفس الطريقه فى مصر كما انا متخيل
    وهل فى اختلافات عندما اريد نشاط الشركه دولى

    اسف انا اسال ولا اعلم ان كنت على علم بالقانون الفرنسى الحالى ام لا
    ولكننى سالت لانك مدرس للقانون فى انجلترا فا على الاقل لك علم بالقانون الدولى

  5. #85
    حـكـيـم الواحة المصريّة
    الصورة الرمزية الأفوكاتو
    الحالة : الأفوكاتو غير متواجد حالياً
    رقم العضوية : 6
    تاريخ التسجيل : Apr 2006
    الدولة : بريطانيا
    العمل : أستاذ فى القانون الإنجليزى(متقاعد)
    المشاركات : 3,742

    افتراضي

    عزيزى و إبنى الأسكندرانى , السيدى بشرى,

    آسف لتأخلرى فى الرد على سؤالك, و لكنى حاليا أطل على الواحة كل يومين أو ثلاثة.

    كنت أود أن أسعدك, و أرد على سؤالك, و لكن العين بصيرة, و اليد قصيرة.

    عندما كنت أمارس مهنة المحاماة, كان تخصصى فى القانون الجنائى, و لأنى كنت فاشلا فى القانون التجارى, فقد أفلست كمحامى حر, و قبلت العمل فى كمحام فى مؤسسة قانونية دولية.

    بعد أن تركت ممارس امهنة المحاماة, و أخترت الطريق الأكاديمى, أى تدريس القانون, تقلصت صفتى كمحامى ممارس, بل إنعدمت, حيث أن ما أقوم به كمحاضر يختلف تماما عما أقوم به كممارس لمهنة المحاماة.

    و تخصصى الأكاديمى , حتى تاريخ إعتزالى العمل الجامعى, كان فى مجال" فلسفة القانون" و "تاريخ تطور القانون الإنجليزى".

    هذا التخصص أبعدنى تماما عن القوانين المتخصصة, التى يتقن معرفتها المحامون الذين يمارسون هذا التخصص, و أنا لست منهم.

    لهذا, يؤسفنى يا ولدى العزيز أنى غير قادر على مساعدتك, و لكن يمكنك البحث فى الجوجل الفرنسى عن "قانون الشركات الفرنسية".

    و عليك أيضا أن تسأل من يعملون فى هذا المجال عن القواعد التى يجب إتباعها للتوصل إلى تكوين هذه الشركة.

    و أخيرا, عليك قبل أن تقدم على قرار نهائى أن تكون جميع إجراءاتك موثقة عن طرق محام متخصص فى هذا المجال.

    تمنياتى لك بالتوفيق, و النجاح, و رفع رأس المصريين عاليا.

  6. #86
    An Oasis Citizen
    الصورة الرمزية حرفوش
    الحالة : حرفوش غير متواجد حالياً
    رقم العضوية : 6695
    تاريخ التسجيل : Oct 2008
    المشاركات : 1,896

    افتراضي مساعدة لدارسى القانون

    أعزائى أعضاء الواحة.

    فى هذا الباب, سأقدم لدارسى الدراسات العليا شرح مبسط لبعض المفردات و التعريفات القانونية التى ترد فى المقالات و الموضوعات المتصلة بدراسة القانون.

    و فى حالة ما إذا احتاج القارئ للترجمة العربية لأى جزء منشور هنا, فسأقوم فورا بتقديم هذه الترجمة.

    و قد رتبت المفردات طبقا للحروف الأبجدية الإنجليزية, لسهولة التوصل إليها, و سأوالى النشر إلى أن أغطئ جميع الحروف الأبجدية.

    تقبلوا تحياتى.



    accessory شريك ثانوى


    Someone who intentionally helps another person commit a felony by giving advice before the crime or helping to conceal the evidence or the perpetrator. An accessory is usually not physically present during the crime. For example, hiding a robber who is being sought by the police might make you an "accessory after the fact" to a robbery. Compare accomplice.


    شريك فى الجريمة accomplice



    Someone who helps another person (known as the principal) commit a crime. Unlike an accessory, an accomplice is usually present when the crime is committed. An accomplice is guilty of the same offense and usually receives the same sentence as the principal. For instance, the driver of the getaway car for a burglary is an accomplice and will be guilty of the burglary even though he may not have entered the building.




    إعلان البراءة acquittal

    A decision by a judge or jury that a defendant in a criminal case is not guilty of a crime. An acquittal is not a finding of innocence; it is simply a conclusion that the prosecution has not proved its case beyond a reasonable doubt.


    act of God حادث قضاء و قدر



    An extraordinary and unexpected natural event, such as a hurricane, tornado, earthquake or even the sudden death of a person. An act of God may be a defense against liability for injuries or damages. Under the law of contracts, an act of God often serves as a valid excuse if one of the parties to the contract is unable to fulfill his or her duties -- for instance, completing a construction project on time.


    العنصر المادى من الجريمةThe actus reus

    Latin for a "guilty act." The actus reus is the act which, in combination with a certain mental state, such as intent or recklessness, constitutes a crime. For example, the crime of theft requires physically taking something (the actus reus) coupled with the intent to permanently deprive the owner of the object (the mental state, or mens rea).


    mens rea العنصر المعنوى من الجريمة

    The mental component of criminal liability. To be guilty of most crimes, a defendant must have committed the criminal act (the actus reus) in a certain mental state (the mens rea). The mens rea of robbery, for example, is the intent to permanently deprive the owner of his property.


    و البقية تأتى
    التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة حرفوش ; 14-03-2009 الساعة 03:40 AM
    الساكت عن الحق شيطان أخرس,

    مع تحيات ياسر عبد المجيد

  7. #87
    An Oasis Citizen
    الصورة الرمزية حرفوش
    الحالة : حرفوش غير متواجد حالياً
    رقم العضوية : 6695
    تاريخ التسجيل : Oct 2008
    المشاركات : 1,896

    افتراضي

    إستكمال:


    agentوكيل رسمى

    A person authorized to act for and under the direction of another person when dealing with third parties. The person who appoints an agent is called the principal. An agent can enter into binding agreements on the principal's behalf and may even create liability for the principal if the agent causes harm while carrying out his or her duties. See also attorney-in-fact.


    aggravating circumstances الظروف المشددة للعقوبة



    Circumstances that increase the seriousness or outrageousness of a given crime, and that in turn increase the wrongdoer's penalty or punishment. For example, the crime of aggravated assault is a physical attack made worse because it is committed with a dangerous weapon, results in severe bodily injury or is made in conjunction with another serious crime. Aggravated assault is usually considered a felony, punishable by a prison sentence.


    alimony النفقة الشرعية



    The money paid by one ex-spouse to the other for support under the terms of a court order or settlement agreement following a divorce. Except in marriages of long duration (ten years or more) or in the case of an ailing spouse, alimony usually lasts for a set period, with the expectation that the recipient spouse will become self-supporting. Alimony is also called "spousal support" or "maintenance."


    appeal إستئناف الحكم أو القرار



    A written request to a higher court to modify or reverse the judgment of a trial court or intermediate level appellate court. Normally, an appellate court accepts as true all the facts that the trial judge or jury found to be true, and decides only whether the judge made mistakes in understanding and applying the law. If the appellate court decides that a mistake was made that changed the outcome, it will direct the lower court to conduct a new trial, but often the mistakes are deemed "harmless" and the judgment is left alone. Some mistakes are corrected by the appellate court -- such as a miscalculation of money damages -- without sending the case back to the trial court. An appeal begins when the loser at trial -- or in an intermediate level appellate court -- files a notice of appeal, which must be done within strict time limits (often 30 days from the date of judgment). The loser (called the appellant) and the winner (called the appellee) submit written arguments (called briefs) and often make oral arguments explaining why the lower court's decision should be upheld or overturned.

    appellant المستأنف



    A party to a lawsuit who appeals a losing decision to a higher court in an effort to have it modified or reversed.


    appellate court محكمة الإستئناف



    A higher court that reviews the decision of a lower court when a losing partyfiles for an appeal.


    arbitration التحكيم



    A non-court procedure for resolving disputes using one or more neutral third parties -- called the arbitrator or arbitration panel. Arbitration uses rules of evidence and procedure that are less formal than those followed in trial courts, which usually leads to a faster, less-expensive resolution. There are many types of arbitration in common use: Binding arbitration is similar to a court proceeding in that the arbitrator has the power to impose a decision, although this is sometimes limited by agreement -- for example, in "hi-lo arbitration" the parties may agree in advance to a maximum and minimum award. In non-binding arbitration, the arbitrator can recommend but not impose a decision. Many contracts -- including those imposed on customers by many financial and healthcare organizations -- require mandatory arbitration in the event of a dispute. This may be reasonable when the arbitrator really is neutral, but is justifiably criticized when the large company that writes the contract is able to influence the choice of the arbitrator.


    arraignment قراءة عريضة الإتهام على المتهم



    A court appearance in which the defendant is formally charged with a crime and asked to respond by pleading guilty, not guilty or nolo contendere. Other matters often handled at the arraignment are arranging for the appointment of a lawyer to represent the defendant and the setting of bail.


    arrest warrant أمر بالقبض على شخص



    A document issued by a judge or magistrate that authorizes the police to arrest someone. Warrants are issued when law enforcement personnel present evidence to the judge or magistrate that convinces her that it is reasonably likely that a crime has taken place and that the person to be named in the warrant is criminally responsible for that crime

    assault التهجم على شخص



    A crime that occurs when one person tries to physically harm another in a way that makes the person under attack feel immediately threatened. Actual physical contact is not necessary; threatening gestures that would alarm any reasonable person can constitute an assault. Compare battery.


    Attorney General النائب العام



    Head of the United States Department of Justice and chief law officer of the Federal government. The Attorney General represents the United States in legal matters, oversees federal prosecutors, and provides legal advice to the President and to heads of executive governmental departments. Each state also has an attorney general, responsible for advising the governor and state agencies and departments about legal issues, and overseeing state prosecuting attorneys.

    autopsy التشريح بواسطة الطبيب الشرعى



    A physician's examination of the body of a deceased person to determine the cause of death.





  8. #88
    An Oasis Citizen
    الصورة الرمزية حرفوش
    الحالة : حرفوش غير متواجد حالياً
    رقم العضوية : 6695
    تاريخ التسجيل : Oct 2008
    المشاركات : 1,896

    افتراضي

    إستكمال

    bail الكفالة


    The money paid to the court, usually at arraignment or shortly thereafter, to ensure that an arrested person who is released from jail will show up at all required court appearances. The amount of bail is determined by the local bail schedule, which is based on the seriousness of the offense. The judge can increase the bail if the prosecutor convinces him that the defendant is likely to flee (for example, if he has failed to show up in court in the past), or he can decrease it if the defense attorney shows that the defendant is unlikely to run (for example, he has strong ties to the community by way of a steady job and a family).



    bailiff حاجب المحكمة


    A court official usually classified as a peace officer (sometimes as a deputy sheriff, or marshal) and usually wearing a uniform. A bailiff's main job is to maintain order in the courtroom. In addition, bailiffs often help court proceedings go smoothly by shepherding witnesses in and out of the courtroom and handing evidence to witnesses as they testify. In criminal cases, the bailiff may have temporary charge of any defendant who is in custody during court proceedings.



    bankruptcy إعلان الإفلاس الرسمى


    A legal proceeding that relieves you of the responsibility of paying your debts or provides you with protection while attempting to repay your debts. There are two types of bankruptcies -- liquidation, in which your debts are wiped out (discharged) and reorganization, in which you provide the court with a plan for how you intend to repay your debts. For both consumers and business.



    battery جريمة الضرب العمد


    A crime consisting of physical contact that is intended to harm someone. Unintentional harmful contact is not battery, no mater how careless the behavior or how severe the injury. A fist fight is a common battery; being hit by a wild pitch in a baseball game is not.



    best evidence rule المستند الأصلى أفضل دليل


    A rule of evidence that demands that the original of any document, photograph or recording be used as evidence at trial, rather than a copy. A copy will be allowed into evidence only if the original is unavailable.



    bond, 1- نوع من الكفالة لا يوجد فى القانون المصرى 2- سندات مالية


    (1) A written agreement purchased from a bonding company that guarantees a person will properly carry out a specific act, such as managing funds, showing up in court, providing good title to a piece of real estate or completing a construction project. If the person who purchased the bond fails at his or her task, the bonding company will pay the aggrieved party an amount up to the value of the bond. (2) An interest-bearing document issued by a government or company as evidence of a debt. A bond provides pre-determined payments at a set date to the bond holder. Bonds may be "registered" bonds, which provide payment to the bond holder whose name is recorded with the issuer and appears on the bond certificate, or "bearer" bonds, which provide payments to whomever holds the bond in-hand.



    breach of contractمخالفة شروط العقد



    A legal claim that one party failed to perform as required under a valid agreement with the other party. For example you might say, "The roofer breached our contract by using substandard supplies when he repaired my roof."


    burden of proof عبئ الإثبات فى القضايا المدنية و الجنائية


    A party's job of convincing the decision maker in a trial that the party's version of the facts is true. In a civil trial, it means that the plaintiff must convince the judge or jury "by a preponderance of the evidence" that the plaintiff's version is true -- that is, over 50% of the believable evidence is in the plaintiff's favor. In a criminal case, because a person's liberty is at stake, the government has a harder job, and must convince the judge or jury beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant is guilty.



    burglary السرقة من داخل المنازل


    The crime of breaking into and entering a building with the intention to commit a felony. The breaking and entering need not be by force, and the felony need not be theft. For instance, someone would be guilty of burglary if he entered a house through an unlocked door in order to commit a murder.



    bylaws القوانين الفرعية التى تحكم التصرفات الداخلية للمؤسسات, و تطلق أيضا على القونين الفرعية الصادرة من المجالس البلدية, و المحلية.


    The rules that govern the internal affairs or actions of a corporation. Normally bylaws are adopted by the shareholders of a profit-making business or the board of directors of a nonprofit corporation. Bylaws generally include procedures for holding meetings and electing the board of directors and officers. The bylaws also set out the duties and powers of a corporation's officers.



    capital punishment عقوبة الإعدام


    The decision by a jury, in the second phase of a captital case, that the convicted defendant should be put to death.



    challenge for cause ( Jury selection) الإعتراض على عضو من أعضاء المحلفين لسبب


    A party's request that the judge dismiss a potential juror from serving on a trial jury by providing a valid legal reason why he shouldn't serve. Potential bias is a common reason potential jurors are challenged for cause -- for example, the potential juror is a relative of a party or one of the lawyers, or admits to a prejudice against one party's race or religion. Judges can also dismiss a potential juror for cause. There is no limit on the number of successful challenges for cause. Compare peremptory challenges.



    circumstantial evidenceدليل غير مباشر, مستمد من تسلسل الأحداث


    Evidence that proves a fact by means of an inference. For example, from the evidence that a person was seen running away from the scene of a crime, a judge or jury may infer that the person committed the crime.



    civil caseقضية مدنية


    A non criminal lawsuit, usually involving private property rights. For example, lawsuits involving breach of contract, probate, divorce, negligence and copyright violations are just a few of the many hundreds of varieties of civil lawsuits.



    class action رفع قضايا جماعية


    A lawsuit in which a large number of people with similar legal claims join together in a group (the class) to sue someone, usually a company or organization. Common class actions involve cases in which a product has injured many people, or in which a group of people has suffered discrimination at the hands of an organization.



    codicil ملحق للوصية


    A supplement or addition to a will. A codicil may explain, modify, add to, subtract from, qualify, alter or revoke existing provisions in a will. Because a codicil changes a will, it must be signed in front of witnesses, just like a will.








  9. #89
    An Oasis Citizen
    الصورة الرمزية حرفوش
    الحالة : حرفوش غير متواجد حالياً
    رقم العضوية : 6695
    تاريخ التسجيل : Oct 2008
    المشاركات : 1,896

    افتراضي

    إستكمال:
    damages التعويض عن الخطأ أو الضرر


    In a lawsuit, money awarded to one party based on injury or loss caused by the other. There are many different types or categories of damages that occasionally overlap, including:


    compensatory damagesالتعويض عن الضرر الفعلى Damages that cover actual injury or economic loss. Compensatory damages are intended to put the injured party in the position he was in prior to the injury. Compensatory damages typically include medical expenses, lost wages and the repair or replacement of property. Also called "actual damages."

    general damagesالتعويض عن الضرر المادى و الألم النفسى فى نفس الوقت Damages intended to cover injuries for which an exact dollar amount cannot be calculated. General damages are usually composed of pain and suffering, but can also include compensation for a shortened life expectancy, loss of the companionship of a loved one and, in defamation cases (libel and slander), loss of reputation.

    nominal damagesالتعويض الرمزى
    A term used when a judge or jury finds in favor of one party to a lawsuit--often because a law requires them to do so--but concludes that no real harm was done and therefore awards a very small amount of money. For example, if one neighbor sues another for libel based on untrue things the second neighbor said about the first, a jury might conclude that although libel technically occurred, no serious damage was done to the first neighbor's reputation and consequentially award nominal damages of $1.00.

    punitive damagesالتعويض العقابىSometimes called exemplarydamages, awarded over and above special and general damages to punish a losing party's willful or malicious misconduct.

    special damages التعويض الخاص Damages that cover the winning party's out-of-pocket costs. For example, in a vehicle accident, special damages typically include medical expenses, car repair costs, rental car fees and lost wages. Often called "specials."

    statutory damages التعويض المنصوص عليه فى القانون Damages required by statutory law. For example, in many states if a landlord doesn't return a tenant's security deposit in a timely fashion or give a reason why it is being withheld, the state statutes give the judge authority to order the landlord to pay damages of double or triple the amount of the deposit.

    treble damagesالتعويض الجزائى( ليس فى القانون المصرى) Lawyer speak for triple damages. To penalize lawbreakers, statutes occasionally give judges the power to award the winning party in a civil lawsuit the amount it lost as a result of the other party's illegal conduct, plus damages of three times that amount.

    decisionقرار أو حكم المحكمة أو هيئات التحكيم


    The outcome of a proceeding before a judge, arbitrator, government agency or other legal tribunal. "Decision" is a general term often used interchangeably with the terms judgment or "opinion." To be precise, however, a judgment is the written form of the court’s decision in the clerk’s minutes or notes, and an opinion is a written document setting out the reasons for reaching the decision.
    deed وثيقة مشهرة رسميا


    A document that transfers ownership of real estate.

    defamationالتشهير


    A false statement that injures someone's reputation and exposes him to public contempt, hatred, ridicule, or condemnation. If the false statement is published in print or through broadcast media, such as radio or TV, it is called libel. If it is only spoken, it is called slander.

    defendant المدعى عليه ( مدنى) أو المتهم ( جنائى)


    The person against whom a lawsuit is filed. In certain states, and in certain types of lawsuits, the defendant is called the respondent. Compare plaintiff, petitioner.

    deposition إقرار( أمام شهود) تم الحصول عليه خارج المحكمة بعد تقديم القسم


    An important tool used in pretrial discovery where one party questions the other party or a witness in the case. Often conducted in an attorney's office, a deposition requires that all questions be answered under oath and be recorded by a court reporter, who creates a deposition transcript. Increasingly, depositions are being videotaped. Any deponent may be represented by an attorney. At trial, deposition testimony can be used to cast doubt on (impeach) a witness's contradictory testimony or to refresh the memory of a suddenly forgetful witness. If a deposed witness is unavailable when the trial takes place -- for example, if he or she has died -- the deposition may be read to the jury in place of live testimony

    dictum منطوق أو ملحوظة وردت فى منطوق الحكم,, Also Obiter dictum, و يختلف
    عنratio decidendi أى السبب فى التوصل إلى الحكم


    A remark, statement or observation of a judge that is not a necessary part of the legal reasoning needed to reach the decision in a case. Although dictum may be cited in a legal argument, it is not binding as legal precedent, meaning that other courts are not required to accept it. For example, if a defendant ran a stop sign and caused a collision, the judge's comments about the mechanical reliability of the particular make of the defendant's car would not be necessary to reach a decision in the case, and would be considered dictum. In future cases, lower court judges are free to ignore the comments when reaching their decisions. Dictum is an abbreviation of the Latin phrase "obiter dictum," which means a remark by the way, or an aside.

    direct examination إستجواب الشهود المبدئى


    At trial, the initial questioning of a party or witness by the side that called him or her to testify. The major purpose of direct examination is to explain your version of events to the judge or jury and to undercut your adversary's version. Good direct examination seeks to prove all facts necessary to satisfy the plaintiff's legal claims or causes of action -- for example, that the defendant breached a valid contract and, as a result, the plaintiff suffered a loss.

    disclaim نفى المسئولية,أو إنكار حق


    (1) To refuse or give away a claim or a right to something. For example, if your aunt leaves you a white elephant in her will and you don't want it, you can refuse the gift by disclaiming your ownership rights. (2) To deny responsibility for a claim or act. For example, a merchant that sells goods second-hand may disclaim responsibility for a product’s defects by selling it "as is."

    disclosureتقديم إقرار بكل الحقائق و المستندات المتواجدة مع أحد أطراف النزاع.


    The making known of a fact that had previously been hidden; a revelation. For example, in many states you must disclose major physical defects in a house you are selling, such as a leaky roof or potential flooding problem.

    discovery حق أحد طرفى النزاع فى معرفة المستندات التى يستند إليها الطر ف الآخر فى القضية


    A formal investigation -- governed by court rules -- that is conducted before trial. Discovery allows one party to question other parties, and sometimes witnesses. It also allows one party to force the others to produce requested documents or other physical evidence. The most common types of discovery are interrogatories, consisting of written questions the other party must answer under penalty of perjury, and depositions, which involve an in-person session at which one party to a lawsuit has the opportunity to ask oral questions of the other party or her witnesses under oath while a written transcript is made by a court reporter. Other types of pretrial discovery consist of written requests to produce documents and requests for admissions, by which one party asks the other to admit or deny key facts in the case. One major purpose of discovery is to assess the strength or weakness of an opponent's case, with the idea of opening settlement talks. Another is to gather information to use at trial. Discovery is also present in criminal cases, in which by law the prosecutor must turn over to the defense any witness statements and any evidence that might tend to exonerate the defendant. Depending on the rules of the court, the defendant may also be obliged to share evidence with the prosecutor.

    dividend جزء من الأرباح التى توزعها الشركات على حملة الأسهم


    A portion of profits distributed by a corporation to its shareholders based on the type of stock and number of shares owned. Dividends are usually paid in cash, though they may also be paid in the form of additional shares of stock or other property. The amount of a dividend is established by the corporation's board of directors; however, state laws often restrict a corporation's ability to declare dividends by requiring a minimum level of profits or assets before the dividend can be approved.

    divorce الطلاق


    The legal termination of marriage. All states require a spouse to identify a legal reason for requesting a divorce when that spouse files the divorce papers with the court. These reasons are referred to as grounds for a divorce.

    driving under the influence (DUI)قيادة السيارة تحت تأثير الألكحول


    The crime of operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol or drugs, including prescription drugs. Complete intoxication is not required; the level of alcohol or drugs in the driver's body must simply be enough to prevent him from thinking clearly or driving safely. State laws specify the levels of blood alcohol content at which a person is presumed to be under the influence. Also called driving while intoxicated (DWI and drunk driving).
    التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة حرفوش ; 15-03-2009 الساعة 07:47 AM

  10. #90
    An Oasis Pioneer
    الصورة الرمزية Fern
    الحالة : Fern غير متواجد حالياً
    رقم العضوية : 288
    تاريخ التسجيل : Oct 2006
    المشاركات : 20,369

    افتراضي

    للرفع

    وقف الخلق ينظرون جميــــــعاً ....... كيف أبنى قواعد المجد وحدى
    وبناة الأهرام فى ســـالف الدهر ....... كفونى الكلام عند التــــــحدى
    أنا تاج العلاء فى مفرق الشرق ........ ودراته فرائـد عـــــــــــــقدى

صفحة 9 من 9 الأولىالأولى ... 789

ضوابط المشاركة

  • لا تستطيع إضافة مواضيع جديدة
  • لا تستطيع الرد على المواضيع
  • لا تستطيع إرفاق ملفات
  • لا تستطيع تعديل مشاركاتك
  •